Dawid 2020 Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg
|Dawid C, Weber D, Musiol E, Janas V, Baur S, Lang R, Fromme T (2020) Comparative assessment of purified saponins as permeabilization agents during respirometry. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg [Epub ahead of print].|
Abstract: Saponins are a diverse group of secondary plant metabolites, some of which display hemolytic toxicity due to plasma membrane permeabilization. This feature is employed in biological applications for transferring hydrophilic molecules through cell membranes. Widely used commercial saponins include digitonin and saponins from soap tree bark, both of which constitute complex mixtures of little definition. We assessed the permeabilization power of pure saponins towards cellular membranes in an effort to detect novel properties and to improve existing applications. In a respirometric assay, we characterized half-maximal permeabilization of the plasma membrane for different metabolites, of the mitochondrial outer membrane for cytochrome C and the full solubilization of mitochondrial inner membrane protein complexes. Beyond the complete list as repository for the field, we highlight several findings with direct applicability. First, we identified and validated α-chaconine as alternative permeabilization agent in respirometric assays of cultured cells and isolated synaptosomes, superior to digitonin in its tolerability for mitochondria. Second, we identified glycyrrhizic acid to form exceptionally small pores impermeable for adenosine diphosphate. Third, in a concentration dependent manner, tomatine proved to be able to selectively permeabilize the mitochondrial outer, but not inner membrane, allowing for novel states in which to determine cytochrome C oxidase activity. In summary, we provide a list of the permeabilization properties of 18 pure saponins. The identification of two saponins, namely tomatine and chaconine, with direct usability in improved or novel cell biological applications within this small subgroup demonstrates the tremendous potential for further functional screening of pure saponins.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Instruments;methods, Comparative MiP;environmental MiP
Organism: Human, Mouse Tissue;cell: Nervous system, HEK Preparation: Permeabilized cells, Isolated mitochondria, Intact cells
Coupling state: LEAK, ROUTINE, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, S, Gp, NS, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k