Donnelly 2022 MitoFit Hypoxia

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Donnelly 2022 MitoFit Hypoxia

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Donnelly C, Schmitt S, Cecatto C, Cardoso LHD, Komlodi T, Place N, Kayser B, Gnaiger E (2022) The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm. https://doi.org/10.26124/mitofit:2022-0025.v2

» MitoFit Preprints 2022.25.v2.

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The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm »Watch the Bioblast 2022 presentation«

Donnelly Chris, Schmitt Sabine, Cecatto Cristiane, Cardoso Luiza HD, Komlodi Timea, Place Nicolas, Kayser Bengt, Gnaiger Erich (2022-07-15) MitoFit Prep

Abstract:

Version 2 (v2) 2022-07-15 The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm https://doi.org/10.26124/mitofit:2022-0025.v2
Version 1 (v1) 2022-06-28 - »Link to all versions«
Oxia terms.png

Donnelly 2022 Abstract Bioblast: Hypoxia is a condition of oxygen levels below normoxia and opposite to hyperoxia. We here define the normoxic reference state by three complementary precepts: (A) ambient normoxia at sea level in the contemporary atmosphere and corresponding dissolved O2 concentration at air saturation of aqueous environments; (B) biological compartmental O2 levels at ambient normoxia under physiological activity of healthy organisms in the absence of environmental stress (e.g. in a diving human, a stranded whale, a thermally stressed animal); and (C) O2 levels above the control region, i.e., where the capacity for O2 consumption is not compromised by partial O2 pressure as evaluated by its kinetics. Conversely, the abc of hypoxia is concerned with deviations from these reference points caused by different mechanisms: (a) ambient alterations of oxygen levels; (b) biological O2 demand exceeding O2 supply under pathological or experimental limitations of convective O2 transport or O2 diffusion; and (c) critical oxygen pressure in oxygen kinetics shifted by pathological and toxicological effects or environmental stress. The ABC of hypoxia may be of help in the design and interpretation of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies.

Keywords: ambient, anoxia, critical O2 pressure pc, functional hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, limiting O2 pressure pl, normoxia, oxygen O2, O2 concentration cO2 [µM], O2 pressure pO2 [kPa] Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E O2k-Network Lab: AT Innsbruck Oroboros, HU Budapest Tretter L, CH Lausanne Place N

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Authors

1 Oroboros Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria
2 Institute of Sport Sciences, Univ. Lausanne, Switzerland
3 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest, HU
* Corresponding author: erich.gnaiger@oroboros.at
Acknowledgements
We thank Martin Burtscher for making us aware of the ABC of oxygen, Adam Chicco for critical comments on absolute versus evolutionary definitions of normoxia, and Malcolm J Shick and Adalberto L Val for discussions. Chris Donnelly was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant agreement nº 194964.

On definitions

  • Definitions always leak at the margins, where experts delight in posing counterexamples for their peers to ponder. Fortunately, the typical cases are clear enough that a little fuzziness around the edges does not interfere with the larger picture (Miller 1991 Scientific American Library).
  • A lexicographer tries, not always successfully, to steer a course between incomprehension and miscomprehension. .. writing definitions is a difficult and little-appreciated art (Miller 1991 Scientific American Library).
  • Full standardisation of definitions and analytical procedures could be feasible for new research efforts. .. For existing datasets and studies, harmonisation attempts to achieve some, but not necessarily perfect, homogeneity of definitions might need substantial effort and coordination. .. Large consortia and collaborations can allow the use of a common language among investigators for clinical definitions, laboratory measurements, and statistical analyses (Ioannidis 2014 Lancet).


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Keywords: Oxia terms

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Bioblast links: Hypoxia, normoxia, hyperoxia - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
TermAbbreviationDescription
AerobicoxThe aerobic state of metabolism is defined by the presence of oxygen (air) and therefore the potential for oxidative reactions (ox) to proceed, particularly in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Aerobic metabolism (with involvement of oxygen) is contrasted with anaerobic metabolism (without involvement of oxygen): Whereas anaerobic metabolism may proceed in the absence or presence of oxygen (anoxic or oxic conditions), aerobic metabolism is restricted to oxic conditions. Below the critical oxygen pressure, aerobic ATP production decreases.
AnaerobicAnaerobic metabolism takes place without the use of molecular oxygen, in contrast to aerobic metabolism. The capacity for energy assimilation and growth under anoxic conditions is the ultimate criterion for facultative anaerobiosis. Anaerobic metabolism may proceed not only under anoxic conditions or states, but also under hyperoxic and normoxic conditions (aerobic glycolysis), and under hypoxic and microxic conditions below the limiting oxygen pressure.
AnoxiaanoxIdeally the terms anoxia and anoxic (anox, without oxygen) should be restricted to conditions where molecular oxygen is strictly absent. Practically, effective anoxia is obtained when a further decrease of experimental oxygen levels does not elicit any physiological or biochemical response. The practical definition, therefore, depends on (i) the techiques applied for oxygen removal and minimizing oxygen diffusion into the experimental system, (ii) the sensitivity and limit of detection of analytical methods of measuring oxygen (O2 concentration in the nM range), and (iii) the types of diagnostic tests applied to evaluate effects of trace amounts of oxygen on physiological and biochemical processes. The difficulties involved in defining an absolute limit between anoxic and microxic conditions are best illustrated by a logarithmic scale of oxygen pressure or oxygen concentration. In the anoxic state (State 5), any aerobic type of metabolism cannot take place, whereas anaerobic metabolism may proceed under oxic or anoxic conditions.
Critical oxygen pressurepcThe critical oxygen pressure, pc, is defined as the partial oxygen pressure, pO2, below which aerobic catabolism (respiration or oxygen consumption) declines significantly. If anaerobic catabolism is activated simultaneously to compensate for lower aerobic ATP generation, then the limiting oxygen pressure, pl, is equal to the pc. In many cases, however, the pl is substantially lower than the pc.
HyperoxiahyperoxHyperoxia is defined as environmental oxygen pressure above the normoxic reference level. Cellular and intracellular hyperoxia is imposed on isolated cells and isolated mitochondria at air-level oxygen pressures which are higher compared to cellular and intracellular oxygen pressures under tissue conditions in vivo. Hyperoxic conditions may impose oxidative stress and may increase maximum aerobic performance.
HypoxiahypoxHypoxia (hypox) is defined in respiratory physiology as the state when insufficient O2 is available for respiration, compared to environmental hypoxia defined as environmental oxygen pressures below the normoxic reference level. Three major categories of hypoxia are (1) environmental hypoxia, (2) physiological tissue hypoxia in hyperactivated states (e.g. at VO2max) with intracellular oxygen demand/supply balance at steady state in tissues at environmental normoxia, compared to tissue normoxia in physiologically balanced states, and (3) pathological tissue hypoxia including ischemia and stroke, anaemia, chronic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe COVID-19, and obstructive sleep apnea. Pathological hypoxia leads to tissue hypoxia and heterogenous intracellular anoxia. Clinical oxygen treatment ('environmental hyperoxia') may not or only partially overcome pathological tissue hypoxia.
Intracellular oxygenpO2,iPhysiological, intracellular oxygen pressure is significantly lower than air saturation under normoxia, hence respiratory measurements carried out at air saturation are effectively hyperoxic for cultured cells and isolated mitochondria.
Limiting oxygen pressureplThe limiting oxygen pressure, pl, is defined as the partial oxygen pressure, pO2, below which anaerobic catabolism is activated to contribute to total ATP generation. The limiting oxygen pressure, pl, may be substantially lower than the critical oxygen pressure, pc, below which aerobic catabolism (respiration or oxygen consumption) declines significantly.
MicroxiamicroxMicroxia (deep hypoxia) is obtained when trace amounts of O2 exert a stimulatory effect on respiration above the level where metabolism is switched to a purely anaerobic mode.
Normoxianormox
Oxia
Normoxia is a reference state, frequently considered as air-level oxygen pressure at sea level (c. 20 kPa in water vapor saturated air) as environmental normoxia. Intracellular tissue normoxia is variable between organisms and tissues, and intracellular oxygen pressure is frequently well below air-level pO2 as a result of cellular (mainly mitochondrial) oxygen consumption and oxygen gradients along the respiratory cascade. Oxygen pressure drops from ambient normoxia of 20 kPa to alveolar normoxia of 13 kPa, while extracellular normoxia may be as low as 1 to 5 kPa in solid organs such as heart, brain, kidney and liver. Pericellular pO2 of cells growing in monolayer cell cultures may be hypoxic compared to tissue normoxia when grown in ambient normoxia (95 % air and 5 % CO2) and a high layer of culture medium causing oxygen diffusion limitation at high respiratory activity, but pericellular pO2 may be effectively hyperoxic in cells with low respiratory rate with a thin layer of culture medium (<2 mm). Intracellular oxygen levels in well-stirred suspended small cells (5 - 7 mm diameter; endothelial cells, fibroblasts) are close to ambient pO2 of the incubation medium, such that matching the experimental intracellular pO2 to the level of intracellular tissue normoxia requires lowering the ambient pO2 of the medium to avoid hyperoxia.
General
» Oxygen, dioxygen, O2
» Intracellular oxygen
» Oxygen pressure
» Oxygen solubility
» Gas pressure
» pascal
» Pressure
» Barometric pressure
» Concentration
Related keyword lists
» Keywords: Oxygen signal
» Keywords: Concentration and pressure

Publications: Tissue normoxia

 YearReferenceOrganismTissue;cellPreparationsStressDiseases
Donnelly 2022 MitoFit Hypoxia2022-07-15Donnelly C, Schmitt S, Cecatto C, Cardoso LHD, Komlodi T, Place N, Kayser B, Gnaiger E (2022) The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm. https://doi.org/10.26124/mitofit:2022-0025.v2
Oxidative stress;RONS
Hypoxia
DiProspero 2021 Toxicol In Vitro2021DiProspero TJ, Dalrymple E, Lockett MR (2021) Physiologically relevant oxygen tensions differentially regulate hepatotoxic responses in HepG2 cells. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2021.105156LiverIntact cellsHypoxia
Stepanova 2020 Methods Cell Biol2020Stepanova A, Galkin A (2020) Measurement of mitochondrial H2O2 production under varying O2 tensions. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2019.12.008MouseNervous systemIsolated mitochondriaOxidative stress;RONS
Keeley 2019 Physiol Rev2019Keeley TP, Mann GE (2019) Defining physiological normoxia for improved translation of cell physiology to animal models and humans. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00041.2017
Ast 2019 Nat Metab2019Ast T, Mootha VK (2019) Oxygen and mammalian cell culture: are we repeating the experiment of Dr. Ox? Nat Metab 1:858-860.
Stepanova 2018 J Neurochem2018Stepanova A, Konrad C, Manfredi G, Springett R, Ten V, Galkin A (2018) The dependence of brain mitochondria reactive oxygen species production on oxygen level is linear, except when inhibited by antimycin A. J Neurochem 148:731-45.MouseNervous systemIsolated mitochondriaIschemia-reperfusion
Oxidative stress;RONS
Stepanova 2018 J Cereb Blood Flow Metab2018Stepanova A, Konrad C, Guerrero-Castillo S, Manfredi G, Vannucci S, Arnold S, Galkin A (2018) Deactivation of mitochondrial complex I after hypoxia-ischemia in the immature brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 39:1790-802.RatNervous systemIsolated mitochondriaHypoxia
Ischemia-reperfusion
Stuart 2018 Oxid Med Cell Longev2018Stuart JA, Fonseca JF, Moradi F, Cunningham C, Seliman B, Worsfold CR, Dolan S, Abando J, Maddalena LA (2018) How Supraphysiological Oxygen Levels in Standard Cell Culture Affect Oxygen-Consuming Reactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018:8238459.
Stepanova 2017 J Cereb Blood Flow Metab2017Stepanova A, Kahl A, Konrad C, Ten V, Starkov AS, Galkin A (2017) Reverse electron transfer results in a loss of flavin from mitochondrial complex I: Potential mechanism for brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 37:3649-58.MouseNervous systemIsolated mitochondriaIschemia-reperfusion
Harrison 2015 J Appl Physiol2015Harrison DK, Fasching M, Fontana-Ayoub M, Gnaiger E (2015) Cytochrome redox states and respiratory control in mouse and beef heart mitochondria at steady-state levels of hypoxia. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00146.2015Mouse
Bovines
HeartIsolated mitochondriaHypoxia
Carreau 2011 J Cell Mol Med2011Carreau A, El Hafny-Rahbi B, Matejuk A, Grillon C, Kieda C (2011) Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01258.x
Richardson 2006 J Physiol2006Richardson RS, Duteil S, Wary C, Wray DW, Hoff J, Carlier PG (2006) Human skeletal muscle intracellular oxygenation: the impact of ambient oxygen availability. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.102327HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxia
Pettersen 2005 Cell Prolif2005Pettersen EO, Larsen LH, Ramsing NB, Ebbesen P (2005) Pericellular oxygen depletion during ordinary tissue culturing, measured with oxygen microsensors. Cell Prolif 38:257-67.
Gnaiger 2003 Adv Exp Med Biol2003Gnaiger E (2003) Oxygen conformance of cellular respiration. A perspective of mitochondrial physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8997-0_4Human
Rat
Heart
Liver
Endothelial;epithelial;mesothelial cell
Fibroblast
Intact cells
Permeabilized cells
Permeabilized tissue
Isolated mitochondria
Oxidase;biochemical oxidation
Gnaiger 2001 Respir Physiol2001Gnaiger E (2001) Bioenergetics at low oxygen: dependence of respiration and phosphorylation on oxygen and adenosine diphosphate supply. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00307-3Human
Rat
Heart
Liver
Endothelial;epithelial;mesothelial cell
HUVEC
Intact cells
Isolated mitochondria
Oxidative stress;RONS
Gnaiger 2000 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2000Gnaiger E, Méndez G, Hand SC (2000) High phosphorylation efficiency and depression of uncoupled respiration in mitochondria under hypoxia. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.20.11080Rat
Artemia
Crustaceans
LiverIsolated mitochondria
Gnaiger 1998 J Exp Biol1998Gnaiger E, Lassnig B, Kuznetsov AV, Rieger G, Margreiter R (1998) Mitochondrial oxygen affinity, respiratory flux control, and excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.201.8.1129Human
Rat
Heart
Liver
Endothelial;epithelial;mesothelial cell
HUVEC
Isolated mitochondria
Enzyme
Oxidase;biochemical oxidation
Intact cells
Gnaiger 1998 Biochim Biophys Acta1998Gnaiger E, Lassnig B, Kuznetsov AV, Margreiter R (1998) Mitochondrial respiration in the low oxygen environment of the cell: Effect of ADP on oxygen kinetics. Biochim Biophys Acta 1365:249-54.RatHeart
Liver
Isolated mitochondria
Gnaiger 1995 J Bioenerg Biomembr1995Gnaiger E, Steinlechner-Maran R, Méndez G, Eberl T, Margreiter R (1995) Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02111656Human
Rat
Liver
Endothelial;epithelial;mesothelial cell
HUVEC
Isolated mitochondria
Intact cells
Gnaiger 1993 Transitions1993Gnaiger E (1993) Homeostatic and microxic regulation of respiration in transitions to anaerobic metabolism. In: The vertebrate gas transport cascade: Adaptations to environment and mode of life. Bicudo JEPW (ed), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo:358-70.Reptiles
Fishes
Crustaceans
Annelids
Intact organism
Gnaiger 1991 Soc Exp Biol Seminar Series1991Gnaiger E (1991) Animal energetics at very low oxygen: Information from calorimetry and respirometry. In: Strategies for gas exchange and metabolism. Woakes R, Grieshaber M, Bridges CR (eds), Soc Exp Biol Seminar Series 44, Cambridge Univ Press, London:149-71.AnnelidsIntact organism
Gnaiger 1983 J Exp Zool1983Gnaiger E (1983) Heat dissipation and energetic efficiency in animal anoxibiosis. Economy contra power. J Exp Zool 228:471-90.Annelids
Molluscs
Skeletal muscleIntact organism
Abstracts: Tissue normoxia
 YearReferenceOrganismTissue;cellPreparationsStressDiseases
Donnelly 2022 Abstract Bioblast20222.1. «10+5»
Donnelly Chris
Donnelly Chris, Schmitt S, Cecatto C, Cardoso L, Komlodi T, Place N, Kayser B, Gnaiger E (2022) The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: https://doi.org/10.26124/bec:2022-0001
»MitoFit Preprint« »Watch the presentation«
Oxidative stress;RONS
Hypoxia
Gnaiger 2018 AussieMit2018Komlodi Timea, Sobotka Ondrej, Doerrier Carolina, Gnaiger Erich (2018) Mitochondrial H2O2 production is low under tissue normoxia but high at in-vitro air-level oxygen pressure - comparison of LEAK and OXPHOS states. AussieMit 2018 Melbourne AU.Mouse
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Heart
Nervous system
Isolated mitochondria
Intact cells
Oxidative stress;RONS
Hypoxia
Sobotka 2018 MiP20182018
Ondrej Sobotka
Measurement of ROS production under hypoxia and unexpected methodological pitfalls of Amplex UltraRed assay.
Mouse
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Heart
Nervous system
Isolated mitochondriaHypoxia
Komlodi 2017 MiP20172017
Timea Komlodi
H2O2 production under hypoxia in brain and heart mitochondria: does O2 concentration matter?
MouseHeart
Nervous system
Isolated mitochondriaOxidative stress;RONS
Hypoxia



Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Comparative MiP;environmental MiP, Exercise physiology;nutrition;life style 

Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS, Hypoxia 



Regulation: Aerobic glycolysis, Flux control, Temperature  Coupling state: ROUTINE 

HRR: Oxygraph-2k 

Tissue normoxia