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Exergy includes external and internal work. Exergy as the external work is defined in the First Law of thermodynamics as a specific form of energy. Exergy as the dissipated Gibbs or Helmholtz energy is the irreversibly dissipated (internal) loss of the potential of performing work as defined in the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Changes of exergy dG plus bound energy yield the enthalpy change:

dH = dG + T∙dS = dG + dB [Eq. 1]

Abbreviation: E; various [J]

Reference: Gnaiger 1993 Pure Appl Chem

Communicated by Gnaiger E 2022-07-11


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  • Joule [J]; 1 J = 1 N·m = 1 V·C; 1 cal = 4.184 J
Fundamental relationships
» Energy
» Exergy
» Extensive quantity
» Force
» Pressure
» Intensive quantity
Forms of energy
» Internal-energy, dU
» Enthalpy, dH
» Heat, deQ
» Bound energy, dB
Forms of exergy
» Helmholtz energy, dA
» Gibbs energy, dG
» Work, deW
» Dissipated energy, diD


  1. Gnaiger E (1993) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of energy transformations. Pure Appl Chem 65:1983-2002. - »Bioblast link«

MitoPedia concepts: Ergodynamics