In an isomorphic analysis, any form of flow, I is the advancement of a process per unit of time, expressed in a specific motive unit [MU∙s-1], e.g., ampere for electric flow or current [A≡C∙s-1], watt for heat flow [W≡J∙s-1], and for chemical flow the unit is [mol∙s-1]. Flow is an extensive quantity. The corresponding isomorphic forces are the partial exergy (Gibbs energy) changes per advancement [J∙MU-1], expressed in volt for electric force [V≡J∙C-1], dimensionless for thermal force, and for chemical force the unit is [J∙mol-1], which deserves a specific acronym ([Jol]) comparable to volt.
Abbreviation: I [MU∙s-1]
Normalization of rate. (A) Cell respiration is normalized for (1) the experimental Sample (flow per object, mass-specific flux, or cell-volume-specific flux); or (2) for the Chamber volume. Normalization yields the specific quantity flux from the extensive quantity flow. From Gnaiger 2019 MitoFit Preprint Arch.