Hatefi 1975 Fed Proc
|Hatefi Y, Hanstein WG, Galante Y, Stiggall DL (1975) Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Fed Proc 34:1699-706.|
Abstract: Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate binds to the same uncoupler-binding site as NPA and other uncouplers. However, unlike the membrane-permeable uncouplers, picrate is a poor protonophore. It has a very small effect on the proton permeability of phosphorylating submitochondrial vesicles, even at two to three times the concentration needed for complete uncoupling. The increase in the proton permeability of submitochondrial vesicles caused by such high concentrations of picrate (500 mum) can be achieved with approximately 5 mum 2,4-dinitrophenol. At this concentration, dinitrophenol results in only about 20% uncoupling.
• Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E
Labels: MiParea: Respiration
Preparation: Isolated mitochondria, SMP, Enzyme Enzyme: Complex V;ATP synthase Regulation: Uncoupler Coupling state: LEAK