Holland 2017 Placenta
|Holland OJ, Hickey AJR, Alvsaker A, Moran S, Hedges C, Chamley LW, Perkins AV (2017) Changes in mitochondrial respiration in the human placenta over gestation. Placenta 57:102-12.|
Abstract: Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear.
Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria. Respirometry was used to compare respiration states and substrate use in mitochondria. Additionally, explants of placental tissue were cultured for four, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h and respiration measured.
Mitochondrial respiration decreased at 11 weeks compared to earlier gestations (p = 0.05-0.001), and mitochondrial content increased at 12-13 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks (p = 0.042). In term placentae, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through mitochondrial complex IV (p < 0.001), the relative proportion of OXPHOS CI (p < 0.001), the total capacity of the respiratory system (p = 0.003), and mitochondrial content (p < 0.001) were higher compared to first trimester. Respiration was increased (p ≤ 0.006-0.001) in laboured compared to non-laboured placenta. After four hours of culture, respiration was depressed compared to fresh tissue from the same placenta and continued to decline with time in culture. Markers of apoptosis were increased, while markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased after four hours of culture.
Respiration and mitochondrial content alter over gestation/with labour. Decreased respiration at 11 weeks and increased mitochondrial content at 12-13 weeks may relate to onset of maternal blood flow, and increased respiration as a result of labour may be an adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion. At term, mitochondria were more susceptible to changes in respiratory function relative to first trimester when cultured in vitro, perhaps reflecting changes in metabolic demands as gestation progresses. Metabolic plasticity of placental mitochondria has relevance to placenta-mediated diseases.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration
Tissue;cell: Genital Preparation: Intact cells, Permeabilized cells
Coupling state: LEAK, ROUTINE, OXPHOS Pathway: F, N, CIV, NS, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k