Jelenik 2013 Antioxid Redox Signal
|Jelenik T, Roden M (2013) Mitochondrial plasticity in obesity and diabetes mellitus. Antioxid Redox Signal 19:258-68.|
Abstract: Insulin resistance and its related diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), have been linked to changes in aerobic metabolism, pointing to a possible role of mitochondria in the development of insulin resistance.
Refined methodology of ex vivo high-resolution respirometry and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy now allows describing several features of mitochondria in humans. In addition to measuring mitochondrial function at baseline and after exercise-induced submaximal energy depletion, the response of mitochondria to endocrine and metabolic challenges, termed mitochondrial plasticity, can be assessed using hyperinsulinemic clamp tests. While insulin resistant states do not uniformly relate to baseline and post-exercise mitochondrial function, mitochondrial plasticity is typically impaired in insulin resistant relatives of T2DM, in overt T2DM and even in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
The variability of baseline mitochondrial function in the main target tissue of insulin action, skeletal muscle and liver, may be attributed to inherited and acquired changes in either mitochondrial quantity or quality. In addition to certain gene polymorphisms and aging, circulating glucose and lipid concentrations correlate with both mitochondrial function and plasticity.
Despite the associations between features of mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, the question of a causal relationship between compromised mitochondrial plasticity and insulin resistance in the development of obesity and T2DM remains to be resolved.
• Keywords: Insulin resistance, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
• O2k-Network Lab: DE Duesseldorf Roden M
Labels: Pathology: Diabetes
Tissue;cell: Skeletal muscle, Liver