Lou 2014 PLoS One
|Lou PH, Lucchinetti E, Zhang L, Affolter A, Schaub MC, Gandhi M, Hersberger M, Warren BE, Lemieux H, Sobhi HF, Clanachan AS, Zaugg M (2014) The mechanism of intralipid®-mediated cardioprotection Complex IV inhibition by the active metabolite, palmitoylcarnitine, generates reactive oxygen species and activates reperfusion injury salvage kinases. PLoS One 9:e87205.|
Abstract: Intralipid® administration at reperfusion elicits protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.
Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion in the absence or presence of Intralipid® 1% administered at the onset of reperfusion. In separate experiments, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine was added either alone or with Intralipid®. Left ventricular work and activation of Akt, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were used to evaluate cardioprotection. ROS production was assessed by measuring the loss of aconitase activity and the release of hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Red. Electron transport chain complex activities and proton leak were measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Titration experiments using the fatty acid intermediates of Intralipid® palmitoyl-, oleoyl- and linoleoylcarnitine served to determine concentration-dependent inhibition of complex IV activity and mitochondrial ROS release.
Intralipid® enhanced postischemic recovery and activated Akt and Erk1/2, effects that were abolished by the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine. Palmitoylcarnitine and linoleoylcarnitine, but not oleoylcarnitine concentration-dependently inhibited complex IV. Only palmitoylcarnitine reached high tissue concentrations during early reperfusion and generated significant ROS by complex IV inhibition. Palmitoylcarnitine (1 µM), administered at reperfusion, also fully mimicked Intralipid®-mediated protection in an N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine -dependent manner.
Our data describe a new mechanism of postconditioning cardioprotection by the clinically available fat emulsion, Intralipid®. Protection is elicited by the fatty acid intermediate palmitoylcarnitine, and involves inhibition of complex IV, an increase in ROS production and activation of the RISK pathway.
• Keywords: Amplex Red in muscle fibers
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Pharmacology;toxicology
Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS Organism: Rat Tissue;cell: Heart Preparation: Permeabilized tissue Enzyme: TCA cycle and matrix dehydrogenases
Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS Pathway: N, NS HRR: Oxygraph-2k