McMurray 2016 Obesity (Silver Spring)
|McMurray F, Patten DA, Harper ME (2016) Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in obesity-recent findings and empirical approaches. Obesity (Silver Spring) 24:2301-10.|
Abstract: High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intricately linked to obesity and associated pathologies, notably insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, ROS are also thought to be important in intracellular signaling, which may paradoxically be required for insulin sensitivity. Many theories have been developed to explain this apparent paradox, which have broadened our understanding of these important small molecules. While many sites for intracellular ROS production have been described, mitochondrial generated ROS remain a major contributor in most cell types. Mitochondrial ROS generation is controlled by a number of factors described in this review. Moreover, these studies have established both a demand for novel sensitive approaches to measure ROS, as well as a need to standardize and review their suitability for different applications.
To properly assess levels of ROS and mitochondrial ROS in the development of obesity and its complications, a growing number of tools have been developed. This paper reviews many of the common methods for the investigation of ROS in mitochondria, cell, animal, and human models.
Available approaches can be generally divided into those that measure ROS-induced damage (e.g., DNA, lipid, and protein damage); those that measure antioxidant levels and redox ratios; and those that use novel biosensors and probes for a more direct measure of different forms of ROS (e.g., 2',7'-di-chlorofluorescein (DCF), dihydroethidium (DHE) and its mitochondrial targeted form (MitoSOX), Amplex Red, roGFP, HyPer, mt-cpYFP, ratiometric H2 O2 probes, and their derivatives). Moreover, this review provides caveats and strengths for the use of these techniques in different models.
Advances in these techniques will undoubtedly advance the understanding of ROS in obesity and may help resolve unanswered questions in the field.
© 2016 The Obesity Society. • Keywords: Amplex Red, Review
• O2k-Network Lab: CA Ottawa Harper ME