Mejia 2019 Reprod Biol Endocrinol
|Mejia JF, Hirschi KM, Tsai KYF, Long MG, Tullis BC, Bitter EEK, Bikman BT, Reynolds PR, Arroyo JA (2019) Differential placental ceramide levels during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Reprod Biol Endocrinol 17:81.|
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with important factors that influence fetal development. Sphingolipids are known to be associated with the development of diabetes. Our objective was to examine ceramide, a key sphingolipid, hyperosmolarity, and apoptosis in placentas from GDM patients treated with insulin or diet.
Ceramide levels were assessed in placental tissues using immunohistochemistry. Immunoblot was performed to quantify serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis, NFAT5, SMIT, AR, caspase 3 and the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Trophoblast cells were treated with insulin or ceramide and assessments for mitochondrial respiration, caspase 3 and XIAP were also performed.
Immunohistochemistry showed increased ceramides in the placental villous trophoblasts of the insulin-treated GDM patients. Nuclear SPT was upregulated only in the insulin-treated GDM placenta when compared to controls. Nuclear NFAT5 was also increased in the GDM placenta. Active caspase 3 was elevated in placentas from both insulin- and diet-treated GDM patients. Mitochondrial respiration was decreased in trophoblasts treated with ceramide. Active caspase was not changed while XIAP protein was increased in trophoblasts treated with ceramide.
Our findings confirm the presence of ceramide in the human placenta of control and GDM patients. Furthermore, we conclude that ceramide is increased in the placental trophoblast during insulin treatment and that its upregulation correlates with elevated NFAT5, SMIT, increased apoptosis and decreased trophoblast mitochondrial respiration.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Developmental biology Pathology: Diabetes
Organism: Human Tissue;cell: Genital Preparation: Permeabilized cells
Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, NS HRR: Oxygraph-2k