Munro 2016 Free Radic Biol Med
|Munro D, Banh S, Sotiri E, Tamanna N, Treberg JR (2016) The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays. Free Radic Biol Med 96:334-46.|
Abstract: The most common methods of measuring mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are based on the extramitochondrial oxidation of a fluorescent probe such as amplex ultra red (AUR) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These traditional HRP-based assays only detect H2O2 that has escaped the matrix, raising the potential for substantial underestimation of production if H2O2 is consumed by matrix antioxidant pathways. To measure this underestimation, we characterized matrix consumers of H2O2 in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, and developed specific means to inhibit these consumers. Mitochondria removed exogenously added H2O2 (2.5µM) at rates of 4.7 and 5.0nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) when respiring on glutamate+malate and succinate+rotenone, respectively. In the absence of respiratory substrate, or after disrupting membranes by cycles of freeze-thaw, rates of H2O2 consumption were negligible. We concluded that matrix consumers are respiration-dependent (requiring respiratory substrates), suggesting the involvement of either the thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymatic pathways. The Trx-reductase inhibitor auranofin (2µM), and a pre-treatment of mitochondria with 35µM of 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB) to deplete GSH specifically compromise these two consumption pathways. These inhibition approaches presented no undesirable "off-target" effects during extensive preliminary tests. These inhibition approaches independently and additively decreased the rate of consumption of H2O2 exogenously added to the medium (2.5µM). During traditional HRP-based H2O2 efflux assays, these inhibition approaches independently and additively increased apparent efflux rates. When used in combination (double inhibition), these inhibition approaches allowed accumulation of (endogenously produced) H2O2 in the medium at a comparable rate whether it was measured with an end point assay where 2.5µM H2O2 is initially added to the medium or with traditional HRP-based efflux assays. This finding confirms that a high degree of inhibition of all matrix consumers is attained with the double inhibition. Importantly, this double inhibition of the matrix consumers allowed revealing that a large part of the H2O2 produced in muscle mitochondria is consumed before escaping the matrix during traditional HRP-based efflux assays. The degree of this underestimation was substrate dependent, reaching >80% with malate, which complicates comparisons of substrates for their capacity to generate H2O2 in normal conditions i.e. when matrix consumers are active. Our results also urge caution in interpreting changes in H2O2 efflux in response to a treatment; when HRP-based assays are used, large changes in apparent H2O2 efflux may come from altered capacity of the matrix consumers.
• Keywords: Mitochondria, Skeletal muscle, Reactiveoxygenspecies (ROS), Thioredoxinreductase, Thioredoxin, Peroxiredoxin, Glutathione reductase, Glutathione, Glutathione peroxidase, Antioxidant, Amplex red, Safranine
Labels: MiParea: Respiration
Stress:Oxidative stress;RONS Organism: Rat Tissue;cell: Skeletal muscle Preparation: Isolated mitochondria
Regulation: Inhibitor, Substrate Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS Pathway: N, S HRR: Oxygraph-2k