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|Hydrogen peroxide||H2O2||reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is formed in various enzyme-catalyzed reactions (e.g., superoxide dismutase) with the potential to damage cellular molecules and structures. H2O2 is dismutated by catalase to water and oxygen. H2O2 is produced as a signaling molecule in aerobic metabolism and passes membranes more easily compared to other ROS.|
|Mitochondrial membrane potential||mtMP, Δψ [V]||The mitochondrial membrane potential, mtMP, is the electric part of the protonmotive force, ΔpH+.
Δψ = ΔpH+ - ΔµH+ / FmtMP or Δψ is the potential difference across the inner mitochondrial (mt) membrane, expressed in the electric unit of volt [V]. Electric force of the mitochondrial membrane potential is the electric energy change per ‘motive’ electron or per electron moved across the transmembrane potential difference, with the number of ‘motive’ electrons expressed in the unit coulomb [C].
|NextGen-O2k Instrument||NextGen-O2k Instrument|
|NextGen-O2k Technical developments|
|Oxygen kinetics||Oxygen kinetics describes the dependence of respiration of isolated mitochondria or cells on oxygen partial pressure. Frequently, a strictly hyperbolic kinetics is observed, with two parameters, the oxygen pressure at half-maximum flux, p50, and maximum flux, Jmax. The p50 is in the range of 0.2 to 0.8 kPa for cytochrome c oxidase, isolated mitochondria and small cells, strongly dependent on Jmax and coupling state.|
|PhotoBiology||PB||PhotoBiology is the scientific study of the beneficial or harmful effects of light, understood as non-ionizing radiation (i.e. ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation), on living organisms. It includes topics such as the study of photosynthesis, photochemistry, photophysics, photomorphogenesis, vision, bioluminescence, circadian rhythms and photodynamic therapy. Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation is any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy below 10 eV) to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule. When photons contact molecules, the molecules can absorb the photon energy and become excited, reacting with surrounding molecules and stimulating "photochemical" and "photophysical" changes.|
|Q redox state||Q||Q redox state|