Normalization of rate

From Bioblast

high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution

Normalization of rate


Normalization of rate (respiratory rate, rate of hydrogen peroxide production, growth rate) is required to report experimental data. Normalization of rates leads to a diversity of formats. Normalization is guided by physicochemical principles, methodological considerations, and conceptual strategies. The challenges of measuring respiratory rate are matched by those of normalization. Normalization of rates for: (1) the number of objects (cells, organisms); (2) the volume or mass of the experimental sample; and (3) the concentration of mitochondrial markers in the instrumental chamber are sample-specific normalizations, which are distinguished from system-specific normalization for the volume of the instrumental chamber (the measuring system). Metabolic flow, I, per countable object increases as the size of the object is increased. This confounding factor is eliminated by expressing rate as sample-mass specific or sample-volume specific flux, J. Flow is an extensive quantity, whereas flux is a specific quantity. If the aim is to find differences in mitochondrial function independent of mitochondrial density, then normalization to a mitochondrial marker is imperative. Flux control ratios and flux control efficiencies are based on internal normalization for rate in a reference state, are independent of externally measured markers and, therefore, are statistically robust.


Bioblast linkReferenceYear
Gnaiger E (2020) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 5th ed. Bioenerg Commun 2020.2.
Gnaiger E et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1.
Laboratory protocol: Citrate synthase a mitochondrial marker enzyme.



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MitoPedia concepts: Respiratory control ratio 

MitoPedia methods: Respirometry, Fluorometry 

MitoPedia O2k and high-resolution respirometry: DatLab 

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