Sharaf 2017 Aquat Toxicol
|Sharaf MS, Stevens D, Kamunde C (2017) Zinc and calcium alter the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver mitochondria. Aquat Toxicol 189:170-83.|
Abstract: At excess levels, zinc (Zn) disrupts mitochondrial functional integrity and induces oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Although much is known about the modulation of Zn toxicity by calcium (Ca) in fish, their interactions at the mitochondrial level have scarcely been investigated. Here we assessed the individual and combined effects of Zn and Ca on the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential (ΔΨmt) in rainbow trout liver mitochondria. We tested if cation uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a prerequisite for Zn- and/or Ca-induced alteration of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, using our recently developed real-time multi-parametric method, we investigated the changes in respiration, ΔΨmt, and reactive oxygen species (ROS, as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) release associated with Ca-induced mitochondrial depolarization imposed by transient and permanent openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We found that independent of the MCU, Zn precipitated an immediate depolarization of the ΔΨmt that was associated with relatively slow enhancement of H2O2 release, inhibition of respiration and reversal of the positive correlation between ROS and ΔΨmt. In contrast, an equitoxic dose of Ca caused transient depolarization, and stimulation of both respiration and H2O2 release, effects that were completely abolished when the MCU was blocked. Contrary to our expectation that mitochondrial transition ROS Spike (mTRS) would be sensitive to both Zn and Ca, only Ca suppressed it. Moreover, Zn and Ca in combination immediately depolarized the ΔΨmt, and caused transient and sustained stimulation of respiration and H2O2 release, respectively. Lastly, we uncovered and characterized an mPTP-independent Ca-induced depolarization spike that was associated with exposure to moderately elevated levels of Ca. Importantly, we showed the stimulation of ROS release associated with highly elevated but not unrealistic Ca loads was not the cause but a result of mPTP opening in the high conductance mode.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, mt-Membrane, Pharmacology;toxicology
Organism: Fishes Tissue;cell: Liver Preparation: Isolated mitochondria
Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k, O2k-Fluorometer, TPP