High-resolution respirometry at extremes
Publication in PNAS
- Horscroft JA, Kotwica AO, Laner V, West JA, Hennis PJ, Levett DZH, Howard DJ, Fernandez BO, Burgess SL, Ament Z, Gilbert-Kawai ET, Vercueil A, Landis BD, Mitchell K, Mythen MG, Branco C, Johnson RS, Feelisch M, Montgomery HE, Griffin JL, Grocott MPW, Gnaiger E, Martin DS, Murray AJ (2017) Metabolic basis to Sherpa altitude adaptation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:6382–7. - »Bioblast link«
High-resolution respirometry in two labs
- Kathmandu (KTM)- 1,400 m: two O2k (March 03 to 15)
- Everest Base Camp (EBC) - 5,364 m: three O2k (March 14 to May)
- Oroboros Instruments with a Power-O2k approach (5 O2k) in the Xtreme Everest 2 expedition. OXPHOS analysis under hypoxia and high-altitude acclimation of muscle mitochondria in Sherpas and Caucasians.
- » General information: http://www.xtreme-everest.co.uk
Everest Base Camp - A Power-O2k Study of Mitochondrial Function
Everest Base Camp Lab
- Erich Gnaiger (Innsbruck, AT) at Everest Base Camp (5,364 m) where acclimation to high altitude was studied using three O2k (March to May 2013).
- In Kathmandu (Nepal) at low altitude (1,400 m), Andrew Murray (Cambridge, UK) operated high-resolution respirometry on human musle biopsies with assistance by Verena Laner (Innsbruck, AT).
- The participants from Innsbruck are supported by the K-Regio project MitoCom Tyrol, D. Swarovski Research Laboratory (Medical University of Innsbruck), and OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS.
Impressions from Kathmandu to Everest Base Camp
Everest Base Camp (EBC) - 5,364 m
Kathmandu Lab - 1,400 m
Namche - 3,440 m
Khunde - 3,840 m
Khumjung - 3,750 m
Khumbu to EBC
- Mount Everest - 8,848 m
- Khumbu Glacier from Kala Pattar - 5,545 m
- Sherpas and Sherpanis in the Khumbu Valley
Yak et al
- Musk deer and others
- Photography: Erich Gnaiger
Infos and Links
- Xtreme Everest 2 - the expedition website
- Oroboros Instruments - sponsor of Xtreme Everest 2
- Sherpa (East men) migrated around 1530 to 1600 from the province Kham (Eastern Tibet) into the Khumbu area. About 90% of the Sherpa in Solu Khumbu trace back to this migration (Kai Gildhorn: Nepal. Mount Everest Trek).
- Michael Kodas (2008) High crimes. The fate of Everst in an age of greed. Hyperion, New York (German edition: Der Gipfel des Verbrechens. Die Everest-Mafia und ihre dreckigen Geschäfte. Malik, National Geographic).
- 2013-03-01: The teams fly from London and Innsbruck/Munich to Kathmandu (KTM).
- 2013-03-02: Arrival in KTM, where the equipment is unpacked at Summit Hotel.
- 2013-03-03: The two O2k are set up in the general lab: Sensor service, sensor test, calibration, instrumental background.
- 2013-03-04: Alex and James fly to Lucla to start the ascent towards Everest Base Camp (EBC). The first Sherpa volunteers come into the KTM lab. Another series of O2k performance tests.
- 2013-03-05: Biopsies of two Sherpa volunteers were analyzed with two protocols in the O2k - a successful start of the first functional mitochondrial study in Sherpas.
- 2013-03-06: The Sherpa biopsies are continued in the KTM lab. Erich flies to Lukla, to catch up with the EBC team.
- 2013-03-07: Erich meets the EBC team at the Namche laboratory.
- 2013-03-11: Power cut interrupts second experiment on this day. The team gets a short debrief before the last day of experiments gets started.
- 2013-03-12: Experiments finished today. Alltogether, 15 muscle biopsies were taken by Prof. David Howard. The KTM-team celebrates the successful run of experiments
- 2013-03-13: A last run of instrumental background for quality assurance of the data.
- 2017-05-23: Horscroft JA, Kotwica AO, Laner V, West JA, Hennis PJ, Levett DZH, Howard DJ, Fernandez BO, Burgess SL, Ament Z, Gilbert-Kawai ET, Vercueil A, Landis BD, Mitchell K, Mythen MG, Branco C, Johnson RS, Feelisch M, Montgomery HE, Griffin JL, Grocott MPW, Gnaiger E, Martin DS, Murray AJ (2017) Metabolic basis to Sherpa altitude adaptation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:6382–7. - »Bioblast link«