Cecatto 2016 Thesis
|Cecatto C (2016) Efeitos de acidos graxos hidroxilados de cadeia longa acumulados nas deficiencias da 3-hidroxiacil CoA desidrogenase de cadeia longa e da proteina trifunctional mitocondrial sobre a homeostase energetica mitochondrial nos musculos cardiaco e esqueletico de ratos jovens. Dissertation p103.
Abstract: Long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiencies are inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation. Affected patients present accumulation of long-chain hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA), particularly 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, in blood and other tissues. The symptomatology is varied, including severe cardiomyopathy and muscular symptoms such as weakness, muscle pain and recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis, as well as hepatopathy, retinopathy, hypotonia, peripheral neuropathy, speech and development delay, leading to premature death. Considering that the pathogenesis of cardiac and skeletal muscle damage presented by the patients are still not established, the aim of the present work was to investigate the in vitro effects of 3HTA and 3HPA on important parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics, namely the respiratory parameters state 3, state 4, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and uncoupled respiration, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), swelling, Ca2+ retention capacity and NAD(P)H redox state in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from young rats. Initially, we observed that 3HTA and 3HPA at lower concentrations (10-30 UM) increased state 4 and decreased RCR in skeletal muscle mitochondria, indicating an uncoupling effect. At higher concentrations (50-100 UM), these fatty acids decreased state 4, state 3 and uncoupled respiration, suggesting metabolic inhibition. Furthermore, we observed that 3HPA was capable to provoke similar effects on mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, validating the results obtained in isolated mitochondria. We also demonstrated that 3HPA and 3HTA (30 UM) strongly decreased the ΔΨm, NAD(P)H content, Ca2+ retention capacity and ATP production, besides inducing swelling, in mitochondria obtained from both tissues and supplemented with Ca2+. These effects were prevented by cyclosporin A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, indicating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition and Ca2+, respectively. The fact that 3HPA strongly increased the mitochondrial membrane fluidity in skeletal muscle indicates that this mechanism may be involved in the mitochondrial bioenergetics impairment caused by these compounds. Finally, we verified that the 3HTA dicarboxylic analogue, 3-hydroxytetradecanodioic acid, which also accumulates in the affected patients, did not alter the tested parameters, indicating a selective action of the monocarboxylic acids. Taken together, we demonstrated that the major LCHFA accumulated in LCHAD and MTP deficiencies impair mitochondrial homeostasis in cardiac and skeletal muscle. We presume that these mechanisms may explain, at least in part, the severe cardiomyopathy, symptomatology and muscle alterations characteristics of the patients affected by these disorders.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Pharmacology;toxicology Pathology: Cardiovascular, Inherited, Myopathy Stress:Permeability transition Organism: Rat Tissue;cell: Heart, Skeletal muscle Preparation: Permeabilized tissue, Isolated mitochondria
Regulation: Fatty acid Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, S HRR: Oxygraph-2k