Nelson 2018 Amino Acids
|Nelson MM, Builta ZJ, Monroe TB, Doorn JA, Anderson EJ (2018) Biochemical characterization of the catecholaldehyde reactivity of L-carnosine and its therapeutic potential in human myocardium. Amino Acids 51:97-102.|
Abstract: Oxidative deamination of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase (MAO) generates the catecholaldehydes 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), respectively, and H2O2. Catecholaldehydes are highly reactive electrophiles that have been implicated as causal factors in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiac injury from ischemia and diabetes. The reactivity of both catechol and aldehyde groups enables the catecholaldehdyes to cross-link proteins and other biological molecules. Carnosine is a β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide found in millimolar concentrations in brain and myocardium. It is well known to detoxify aldehydes formed from oxidized lipids and sugars, yet the reactivity of carnosine with catecholaldehydes has never been reported. Here, we investigated the ability of carnosine to form conjugates with DOPAL and DOPEGAL. Both catecholaldehydes were highly reactive towards L-cysteine (L-Cys), as well as carnosine; however, glutathione (GSH) showed essentially no reactivity towards DOPAL. In contrast, GSH readily reacted with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), while carnosine showed low reactivity to 4HNE by comparison. To determine whether carnosine mitigates catecholaldehyde toxicity, samples of atrial myocardium were collected from patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Using permeabilized myofibers prepared from this tissue, mitochondrial respiration analysis revealed a concentration-dependent decrease in ADP-stimulated respiration with DOPAL. Pre-incubation with carnosine, but not GSH or L-Cys, significantly reduced this effect (p < 0.05). Carnosine was also able to block formation of catecholaldehyde protein adducts in isolated human cardiac mitochondria treated with NE. These findings demonstrate the unique reactivity of carnosine towards catecholaldehydes and, therefore, suggest a novel and distinct biological role for histidine dipeptides in this detoxification reaction. The therapeutic potential of carnosine in diseases associated with catecholamine-related toxicity is worthy of further examination.
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Pharmacology;toxicology
Organism: Human Tissue;cell: Heart Preparation: Permeabilized tissue
Coupling state: OXPHOS