Niu 2018 Cancer Metab
|Niu X, Chen YJ, Crawford PA, Patti GJ (2018) Transport-exclusion pharmacology to localize lactate dehydrogenase activity within cells. Cancer Metab 6:19.|
Abstract: Recent in vitro and in vivo work has shown that lactate provides an important source of carbon for metabolic reactions in cancer cell mitochondria. An interesting question is whether lactate is oxidized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cytosol and/or in mitochondria. Since metabolic processes in the cytosol and mitochondria are affected by redox balance, the location of LDH may have important regulatory implications in cancer metabolism.
Within most mammalian cells, metabolic processes are physically separated by membrane-bound compartments. Our general understanding of this spatial organization and its role in cellular function, however, suffers from the limited number of techniques to localize enzymatic activities within a cell. Here, we describe an approach to assess metabolic compartmentalization by monitoring the activity of pharmacological inhibitors that cannot be transported into specific cellular compartments.
Oxamate, which chemically resembles pyruvate, is transported into mitochondria and inhibits LDH activity in purified mitochondria. GSK-2837808A, in contrast, is a competitive inhibitor of NAD, which cannot cross the inner mitochondrial membrane. GSK-2837808A did not inhibit the LDH activity of intact mitochondria, but GSK-2837808A did inhibit LDH activity after the inner mitochondrial membrane was disrupted.
Our results are consistent with some mitochondrial LDH that is accessible to oxamate, but inaccessible to GSK-2837808A until mitochondria are homogenized. This strategy of using inhibitors with selective access to subcellular compartments, which we refer to as transport-exclusion pharmacology, is broadly applicable to localize other metabolic reactions within cells.
• Keywords: Lactate, Lactate dehydrogenase, Redox balance, Transport-exclusion pharmacology • Bioblast editor: Plangger M
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Pharmacology;toxicology
Organism: Human Tissue;cell: HeLa Preparation: Isolated mitochondria Enzyme: TCA cycle and matrix dehydrogenases Regulation: Inhibitor Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, S, NS, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k