Piel 2014 Acta Physiol (Oxf)
|Piel S, Ehinger JK, Elmér E, Hansson Magnus J (2014) Metformin induces lactate production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets through specific mitochondrial Complex I inhibition. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 213:171-80.|
Abstract: Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug associated with the rare side effect of lactic acidosis which has been proposed to be linked to drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Using respirometry, the aim of this study was to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity of metformin to human blood cells in relation to that of phenformin, a biguanide analogue withdrawn in most countries due to a high incidence of lactic acidosis.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets were isolated from healthy volunteers, and integrated mitochondrial function was studied in permeabilized and intact cells using high-resolution respirometry. A wide concentration range of metformin (0.1-100 mM) and phenformin (25-500 μM) was investigated for dose- and time-dependent effects on respiratory capacities, lactate production and pH.
Metformin induced respiratory inhibition at Complex I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets (IC50 0.45 mM and 1.2 mM respectively). Phenformin was about 20-fold more potent in Complex I inhibition of platelets than metformin. Metformin further demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent respiratory inhibition and augmented lactate release at a concentration of 1 mM and higher.
Respirometry of human peripheral blood cells readily detected respiratory inhibition by metformin and phenformin specific to Complex I, providing a suitable model for probing drug toxicity. Lactate production was increased at concentrations relevant for clinical metformin intoxication, indicating mitochondrial inhibition as a direct causative pathophysiological mechanism. Relative to clinical dosing, phenformin displayed a more potent respiratory inhibition than metformin, possibly explaining the higher incidence of lactic acidosis in phenformin-treated patients.
• Keywords: Human, Drug screening, Metformin, Mitochondrial toxicity, Phenformin, Respirometry
• O2k-Network Lab: SE Lund Elmer E
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, Pharmacology;toxicology Pathology: Diabetes
Organism: Human Tissue;cell: Blood cells, Other cell lines, Platelet Preparation: Permeabilized cells, Intact cells
Coupling state: LEAK, ROUTINE, OXPHOS, ET Pathway: N, S, CIV, NS, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k
Metformin, MitoEAGLE blood cells data