# Aguirre 2010 Biochim Biophys Acta

Aguirre E, Rodríguez-Juárez F, Bellelli A, Gnaiger E, Cadenas S (2010) Kinetic model of the inhibition of respiration by endogenous nitric oxide in intact cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:557-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.01.033 |

Aguirre E, Rodriguez-Juarez F, Bellelli A, Gnaiger Erich, Cadenas S (2010) Biochim Biophys Acta

*Abstract*: Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits mitochondrial respiration by decreasing the apparent affinity of cytochrome c oxidase (CIV) for oxygen. Using iNOS-transfected HEK 293 cells to achieve regulated intracellular NO production, we determined NO and O_{2} concentrations and mitochondrial O_{2} consumption by high-resolution respirometry over a range of O_{2} concentrations down to nanomolar. Inhibition of respiration by NO was reversible, and complete NO removal recovered cell respiration above its routine reference values. Respiration was observed even at high NO concentrations, and the dependence of IC_{50} on [O_{2}] exhibits a characteristic but puzzling parabolic shape; both these features imply that CIV is protected from complete inactivation by NO and are likely to be physiologically relevant. We present a kinetic model of CIV inhibition by NO that efficiently predicts experimentally determined respiration at physiological O_{2} and NO concentrations and under hypoxia, and accurately predicts the respiratory responses under hyperoxia. The model invokes competitive and uncompetitive inhibition by binding of NO to the reduced and oxidized forms of CIV, respectively, and suggests that dissociation of NO from reduced CIV may involve its O_{2} dependent oxidation. It also explains the non-linear dependence of IC_{50} on O_{2} concentration, and the hyperbolic increase of *c*_{50} as a function of NO concentration.
* • Keywords:* Nitric oxide, Mitochondrial respiration, Cytochrome c oxidase, Oxygen consumption, Mitochondria, Kinetic model

* • O2k-Network Lab:* ES Madrid Cadenas S, AT Innsbruck Gnaiger E

## Supporting Information

### The hyperbolic approximation

- The kinetic model described in this manuscript can be simplified, under selected sets of experimental conditions, in order to provide hyperbolic approximations valid within certain ranges of O
_{2}and NO concentration.

- The kinetic model described in this manuscript can be simplified, under selected sets of experimental conditions, in order to provide hyperbolic approximations valid within certain ranges of O

- We first need to consider the general equation for the velocity of the O
_{2}consumption catalyzed by CcO:

- We first need to consider the general equation for the velocity of the O

*v*= [CcO_{tot}]*V*_{max1}([O_{2}]*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}*K*_{uNO}+*r*[O_{2}] [NO]*K*_{m1}*K*_{uNO}) / [*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}*K*_{uNO}(*K*_{m1}+ [O_{2}]) + [NO]*K*_{m1}*K*_{uNO}(*K*_{m2}+ [O_{2}]) + [NO] [O_{2}]*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}] Eq. (S1)

- Note that this equation is, as expected, the weighted sum of two Michaelis cycles plus the term [NO] [O
_{2}]*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}which represents the fully inhibited species NO CcO_{o}.

- Note that this equation is, as expected, the weighted sum of two Michaelis cycles plus the term [NO] [O

- Under our experimental conditions
*K*_{uNO}is larger than the concentrations of NO, and is thus dropped by the minimization routine; this implies that the pertinent enzyme derivative, NO CcO_{o}, is not populated and that we can omit the term*K*_{uNO}. Thus the velocity of O_{2}consumption reduces to

- Under our experimental conditions

*v*= [CcO_{tot}]*V*_{max1}([O_{2}]*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}+*r*[O_{2}] [NO]*K*_{m1}) / [*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}(*K*_{m1}+ [O_{2}]) + [NO]*K*_{m1}(*K*_{m2}+ [O_{2}])] Eq. (S2)

- Eq. S2 reduces to two simple hyperbola in the absence of NO or in the presence of excess NO (i.e. when [NO]
*K*_{m1}>>*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}).

- Eq. S2 reduces to two simple hyperbola in the absence of NO or in the presence of excess NO (i.e. when [NO]

- Rearranging from Eq. 2 in the main text, the
*c*_{50}derived from Eq. S2 is as follows:

- Rearranging from Eq. 2 in the main text, the

*c*_{50}=*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}[*K*_{icNO}/ (*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}+ [NO]*K*_{m1}) + [NO] / (*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}+ [NO]*K*_{m1})] Eq. (S3)

- This equation shows that the
*c*_{50}is limited between*K*_{m1}(in the absence of NO) and*K*_{m2}(at very high NO), and approximates as follows:

- This equation shows that the

*c*_{50}=*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}*K*_{icNO}/ (*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}+ [NO]*K*_{m1}) at low NO; and

*c*_{50}=*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}[NO] / (*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}+ [NO]*K*_{m1}) at high NO.

- If we take
*K*_{m1}as granted from the experiments in the absence of NO, these approximations allow us to determine empirically the two products*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}and*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}.

- If we take

- With
*K*_{m1}= 0.81 μM,*V*_{max1}=16.5 pmol·s^{-1}·10^{-6}cells,*K*_{icNO}= 3.63 nM and*K*_{m2}= 520 μM, the hyperbolic approximation would suggest*V*_{max2}= 20.4 pmol·s^{-1}·10^{-6}cells (kinetic fit = 22) and*K*_{uNO}= 9.94 μM (compatible with the kinetic fit since*K*_{uNO}>[NO]);*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}= 421 μM and*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}= 1.89 μM.

- With

- For
*K*_{m1}= 0.81 μM, the hyperbolic approximation yields the best global fit to the low-O2 experimental series when*K*_{icNO}= 3.37 nM,*K*_{m2}= 407 μM and*K*_{uNO}= 7.23 μM;*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}= 330 μM and*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}= 1.37 μM.

- For

- For
*K*_{m1}= 0.65 μM, which corresponds to the average*c*_{50}measured in the absence of NO (Table 1), the hyperbolic approximation yields the best global fit to the low-O2 experimental series when*K*_{icNO}= 2.6 nM,*K*_{m2}= 476 μM and*K*_{uNO}= 3.54 μM;*K*_{m1}*K*_{m2}= 309 μM and*K*_{icNO}*K*_{m2}= 1.24 μM.

- For

- The parameters for the hyperbolic approximation were calculated with variable
*J*_{S}for each experimental run. The stimulation factor,*F*, was calculated from the*J*_{S}/*J*_{ref}ratio for each experiment (Fig. 7C and D).

- The parameters for the hyperbolic approximation were calculated with variable

### Parameters in the kinetic and hyperbolic models

**Kinetic Parameter**

*K*_{m1}=*V*_{max1}/*V*_{max2}= 0.810

*V*_{max1}= 16.500

*V*_{max2}=*V*_{max1}/*K*_{m1}= 20.370

*r*=1/*K*_{m1}= 1.235

*K*_{m*}=*K*_{m1*}*K*_{m2}= 421.200

*K*_{m2}=*K*_{m*}/*K*_{m1}= 520.000

*K*_{icNO}= 0.00363

*K*_{i*}=*K*_{icNO*}*K*_{m2}= 1.888

*K*_{uNO}=*K*_{i*}/(1-*K*_{m1}) = 9.935

**Hyperbolic Parameter 1 or (2)**

*K*_{m1}=*V*_{max1}/*V*_{max2}= 0.650 (0.810)

*V*_{max1}--

*V*_{max2}=*V*_{max1}/*K*_{m1}--

*r*=1/*K*_{m1}= 1.538 (1.235)

*K*_{m*}=*K*_{m1*}*K*_{m2}= 309.350 (330.000)

*K*_{m2}=*K*_{m*}/*K*_{m1}= 475.923 (407.407)

*K*_{icNO}= 0.00260 (0.00337)

*K*_{i*}=*K*_{icNO*}*K*_{m2}= 1.237 (1.373)

*K*_{uNO}=*K*_{i*}/(1-*K*_{m1}) = 3.535 (7.226)

## O2k-Publications

## Product information

- O2k-NO Amp-Module
- Preamplifier with O2k Series B and O2k-MultiSensor Upgrade.

## Cited by

- 13 articles in PubMed (2021-12-27) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20144583/

- Gnaiger E (2020) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 5
^{th}ed. Bioenerg Commun 2020.2. https://doi.org/10.26124/bec:2020-0002

*Labels:* **MiParea:** Respiration, Genetic knockout;overexpression

**Stress:**Oxidative stress;RONS

**Tissue;cell:** HEK
**Preparation:** Enzyme, Oxidase;biochemical oxidation, Intact cells
**Enzyme:** Complex IV;cytochrome c oxidase
**Regulation:** Inhibitor, Oxygen kinetics
**Coupling state:** LEAK, ROUTINE, ET
**Pathway:** ROX
**HRR:** Oxygraph-2k, NO, O2k-Protocol

BEC 2020.2, O2k-Demo, NO