Noone 2023 Cell Signal
|Noone J, Rochfort KD, O'Sullivan F, O'Gorman DJ (2023) SIRT4 is a regulator of human skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism influencing inner and outer mitochondrial membrane-mediated fusion. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2023.110931|
» Cell Signal 112:110931. PMID: 37858614 Open Access
Abstract: The mitochondrial phenotype, governed by the balance of fusion-fission, is a key determinant of energy metabolism. The inner and outer mitochondrial membrane (IMM) fusion proteins optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and Mitofusin 1 and 2 (Mfn1/2) play an important role in this process. Recent evidence also shows that Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4), located within the mitochondria, is involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine if SIRT4 expression regulates inner and outer mitochondrial-mediated fusion and substrate utilization within differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMC).
Material and methods: SIRT4 expression was knocked down using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection in differentiated HSkMC. Following knockdown, mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry (HRR) using the Oroboros Oxygraph O2k. Live cell confocal microscopy, quantified using the Mitochondrial Network Analysis (MiNA) toolset, was used to examine mitochondrial morphological change. This was further examined through the measurement of key metabolic and mitochondrial morphological regulators (mRNA and protein) induced by knockdown.
SIRT4 knockdown resulted in a significant decrease in LEAK respiration, potentially explained by a decrease in ANT1 protein expression. Knockdown further increased oxidative phosphorylation and protein expression of key regulators of fatty acid metabolism. Quantitative analysis of live confocal imaging of fluorescently labelled mitochondria following SIRT4 knockdown supported the role SIRT4 plays in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology, as emphasized by an increase in mitochondrial network branches and junctions. Measurement of key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics illustrated a significant increase in mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, OPA1 respectively, indicative of an increase in mitochondrial size.
This study provides evidence of a direct relationship between the mitochondrial phenotype and substrate oxidation in HSkMC. We identify SIRT4 as a key protagonist of energy metabolism via its regulation of IMM and OMM fusion proteins, OPA1 and Mfn1. SIRT4 knockdown increases mitochondrial capacity to oxidize fatty acids, decreasing LEAK respiration and further increasing mitochondrial elongation via its regulation of mitochondrial fusion. • Keywords: Metabolism, Mitochondrial dynamics, Mitochondrial function, OPA1, Sirtuin, Skeletal muscle • Bioblast editor: Plangger M • O2k-Network Lab: US FL Orlando Goodpaster BH, IE Dublin O Gorman D
Labels: MiParea: Respiration, mt-Structure;fission;fusion, Genetic knockout;overexpression
Organism: Human Tissue;cell: Skeletal muscle Preparation: Permeabilized cells
Coupling state: LEAK, OXPHOS Pathway: F, N, ROX HRR: Oxygraph-2k