Kay 1997 Biochim Biophys Acta
|Kay L, Li Z, Mericskay M, Olivares J, Tranqui L, Fontaine E, Tiivel T, Sikk P, Kaambre T, Samuel JL Rappaport L, Usson Y, Leverve X, Paulin D, Saks VA (1997) Study of regulation of mitochondrial respiration in vivo. An analysis of influence of ADP diffusion and possible role of cytoskeleton. Biochim Biophys Acta 1322:41-59.|
Preparation: Isolated mitochondria
The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanism of regulation of mitochondrial respiration in vivo in different muscles of normal rat and mice, and in transgenic mice deficient in desmin. Skinned fiber technique was used to study the mitochondrial respiration in the cells in vivo in the heart, soleus and white gastrocnemius skeletal muscles of these animals. Also, cardiomyocytes were isolated from the normal rat heart, permeabilized by saponin and the "ghost" (phantom) cardiomyocytes were produced by extraction of myosin with 800 mM KCl. Use of confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and anti-desmin antibodies showed good preservation of mitochondria and cytoskeletal system in these phantom cells. Kinetics of respiration regulation by ADP was also studied in these cells in detail before and after binding of anti-desmine antibodies with intermediate filaments. In skinned cardiac or soleus skeletal muscle fibers but not in fibers from fast twitch skeletal muscle the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration regulation by ADP was characterized by very high apparent Km (low affinity) equal to 300-400 microM, exceeding that for isolated mitochondria by factor of 25. In skinned fibers from m. soleus, partial inhibition of respiration by NaN3 did not decrease the apparent Km for ADP significantly, this excluding the possible explanation of low apparent affinity of mitochondria to ADP in these cells by its rapid consumption due to high oxidative activity and by intracellular diffusion problems. However, short treatment of fibers with trypsin decreased this constant value to 40-70 microM, confirming the earlier proposition that mitochondrial sensitivity to ADP in vivo is controlled by some cytoplasmic protein. Phantom cardiomyocytes which contain mostly mitochondria and cytoskeleton and retain the normal shape, showed also high apparent Km values for ADP. Therefore, they are probably the most suitable system for studies of cellular factors which control mitochondrial function in the cells in vivo. In these phantom cells anti-desmin antibodies did not change the kinetics of respiration regulation by ADP. However, in skinned fibers from the heart and m. soleus of transgenic desmin-deficient mice some changes in kinetics of respiration regulation by ADP were observed: in these fibers two populations of mitochondria were observed, one with usually high apparent Km for ADP and the second one with very low apparent Km for ADP. Morphological observations by electron microscopy confirmed the existence of two distinct cellular populations in the muscle cells of desmin-deficient mice. The results conform to the conclusion that the reason for observed high apparent Km for ADP in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart and slow twitch skeletal muscle cells in vivo is low permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane porins but not diffusion problems of ADP into and inside the cells. Most probably, in these cells there is a protein associated with cytoskeleton, which controls the permeability of the outer mitochondrial porin pores (VDAC) for ADP. Desmin itself does not display this type of control of mitochondrial porin pores, but its absence results in appearance of cells with disorganised structure and of altered mitochondrial population probably lacking this unknown VDAC controlling protein. Thus, there may be functional connection between mitochondria, cellular structural organisation and cytoskeleton in the cells in vivo due to the existence of still unidentified protein factor(s).