Luminescence is spontaneous emission of radiation from an electronically or vibrationally excited species not in thermal equilibrium with its environment (IUPC definition). An alternative definition is "Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat." Luminescence comprises many different pehnomena. Luminescence from direct photoexcitation of the emitting species is called photoluminescence. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are forms of photoluminescence. In biomedical research also forms of chemiluminescence (e.g.the luciferin reaction) are used. In chemiluminescence the emission of radiation results from a chemical reaction. For other forms of luminescence see the IUPAC Gold Book.
MitoPedia methods: Fluorometry