Zhao 2011 Free Radic Biol Med

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Zhao B, Ranguelova K, Jiang J, Mason RP (2011) Studies on the photosensitized reduction of resorufin and implications for the detection of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. Free Radic Biol Med 51:153-9

» PMID: 22576106 Open Access

Zhao B, Ranguelova K, Jiang J, Mason RP (2011) Free Radic Biol Med

Abstract: The photosensitized reduction of resorufin (RSF), the fluorescent product of Amplex Red, was investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR), optical absorption/fluorescence, and oxygen consumption measurements. Anaerobic reaction of RSF in the presence of the electron donor reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) demonstrated that during visible light irradiation (λ > 300 nm), RSF underwent one-electron reduction to produce a semiquinoneimine-type anion radical (RSF(•) ‾) as demonstrated by direct ESR. Spin-trapping studies of incubations containing RSF, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and NADH demonstrated, under irradiation with visible light, the production of the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-sensitive DMPO/(•)OOH adduct. Both absorption and fluorescence spectra of RSF in the presence of NADH demonstrated that the RSF(•) ‾ was further reduced during irradiation with formation of its colorless dihydroquinoneimine form, dihydroresorufin (RSFH₂). Both RSF(•) ‾ and RSFH₂, when formed in an aerobic system, were immediately oxidized by oxygen, which regenerated the dye and formed superoxide. Oxygen consumption measurements with a Clark-type oxygen electrode showed that molecular oxygen was consumed in a light-dependent process. The suppression of oxygen consumption by addition of SOD or catalase further confirmed the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide.

Cited by

  • Komlódi T, Sobotka O, Gnaiger E (2021) Facts and artefacts on the oxygen dependence of hydrogen peroxide production using Amplex UltraRed. Bioenerg Commun 2021.4. https://doi:10.26124/BEC:2021-0004

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