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2-mercaptoacetate +'''2-mercaptoacetate''' is an inhibitor of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, MCAD, the rate-limiting enzyme of [[octanoylcarnitine]] oxidation. 2-mercaptoacetate has been used as an inhibitor of [[fatty acid oxidation]] ([[F-pathway control state]]). In permeabilized rat soleus muscle fibers, pre-incubation with 1 mM 2-mercaptoacetate for 45 min resulted in 58% inhibition of MCAD and decreased [[octanoylcarnitine]]&[[malate]] stimulated respiration by approximately 60% ([[Osiki 2016 FASEB J]]).  +
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ADP +'''Adenosine diphosphate''' is a nucleotid. In [[OXPHOS]] core metabolism, ADP is a substrate of [[ANT]] and [[ATP synthase]] in the [[phosphorylation system]]. ADP is the discharged or low-energy counterpart of [[ATP]]. ADP can accept chemical energy by regaining a phosphate group to become ATP, in substrate-level phosphorylation (in anaerobic catabolism), at the expense of solar energy (in photosynthetic cells) or chemiosmotic energy (respiration in heterotrophic cells). ADP is added to [[mitochondrial preparations]] at kinetically saturating concentrations to induce the active state for evaluation of [[OXPHOS capacity]].  +
AMPK +'''AMP-activated protein kinase''' is a regulatory protein which acts as crucial cellular energy sensor by sensing AMP, [[ADP]] and/or Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels in response to metabolic stresses or drug administration.  +
ASAPbio +Science only progresses as quickly and efficiently as it is shared. But even with all of the technological capabilities available today, the process of publishing scientific work is taking longer than ever. '''ASAPbio''' (Accelerating Science and Publication in biology) is a scientist-driven nonprofit working to address this problem by promoting innovation and transparency in life sciences communication. In 2015, ASAPbio founder Ron Vale published an analysis of the increasing time to first-author publication among graduate students at UCSF, and proposed a more widespread use of preprints in the life sciences as a potential solution.  +
ATP +'''Adenosine triphosphate''' is a nucleotid and functions as the major carrier of chemical energy in the cells. As it transfers its energy to other molecules, it looses its terminal phosphate group and becomes adenosine diphosphate ([[ADP]]).  +
ATP synthase +'''ATP synthase''' or '''F-ATPase''' (the use of Complex V is discouraged) catalyzes the [[endergonic]] phosphorylation of [[ADP]] to [[ATP]] in an over-all [[exergonic]] process that is driven by proton translocation along the [[protonmotive force]]. The ATP synthase can be inhibited by [[oligomycin]].  +
ATPases +'''ATPases''' are enzymes that hydrolyse [[ATP]], releasing [[ADP]] and [[inorganic phosphate]]. The contamination of isolated mitochondria with ATPases from other organelles and endogenous adenylates can lead to the production of ADP, which can stimulate respiration. This situation would lead to an overestimation of [[LEAK-respiration]] measured in the absence of ADP, ''L''(n) and subsequent inhibition of respiration by oligomycin, ''L''(Omy).  +
Absorbance +Also known as attenuation or extinction, '''absorbance''' (''A'') is a measure of the difference between the [[incident light]] intensity (''I''<sub>0</sub>) and the intensity of light emerging from a sample (''I''). It is defined as: ''A'' = log (''I''<sub>0</sub>/''I'')  +
Absorbance spectrum +When light enters a sample, the amount of light that it absorbs is dependent upon the wavelength of the incident light. The '''absorbance spectrum''' is the curve derived by plotting the measured [[absorbance]] against the wavelength of the light emerging from the sample over a given [[wavelength range]]. An [[absorbance spectrum]] may be characterised by peaks and troughs (absorbance maxima and minima) that can be used to identify, and sometimes quantify, different absorbing substances present in a sample.  +
Absorption +When light enters a sample and emerges with an intensity (''I''), '''absorption''' (''Abs'') is the fraction of the light absorbed by the sample compared with the [[incident light]] intensity (''I''<sub>''0''</sub>): ''Abs'' = 1-''I''/''I''<sub>''0''</sub>. Absorption can also be expressed as ''Abs'' = 1-''T'', where ''T'' is the [[transmittance]].  +
Absorption spectrum +An '''absorption spectrum''' is similar to an [[absorbance spectrum]] of a sample, but plotted as a function of [[absorption]] against wavelength.  +
Acceleration +'''Acceleration''', '''''a''''', is the change of [[velocity]] over time [m·s<sup>-2</sup>]. '''''a''''' = d'''''v'''''/d''t'' The symbol ''g'' is used for acceleration of free fall. The standard acceleration of free fall is defined as ''g''<sub>n</sub> = 9.80665 [m·s<sup>-2</sup>].  +
Acclimation +'''Acclimation''' is an immediate time scale adaptation expressing pheotypic plasticity in response to changes of a single variable under controlled laboratory conditions.  +
Acclimatization +'''Acclimatization''' is an immediate time scale adaptation expressing phenotypic plasticity in response to changes of habitat conditions and life style where several variables may change simultaneously.  +
Accuracy +The '''accuracy''' of a method is the degree of agreement between an individual test result generated by the method and the true value.  +
Activity +The '''activity''' (relative activity) is a dimensionless quantity related to the concentration or partial pressure of dissolved substances. The activity of a dissolved substance B equals the [[concentration]], ''c''<sub>B</sub> [mol·L<sup>-1</sup>], at high dilution divided by the unit concentration, ''c''° = 1 mol·L<sup>-1</sup>: ''a''<sub>B</sub> = ''c''<sub>B</sub>/''c''° This simple relationship applies frequently to substances at high dilutions <10 mmol·L<sup>-1</sup> (<10 mol·m<sup>-3</sup>). In general, the concentration of a [[solute]] has to be corrected for the activity coefficient (concentration basis), ''γ''<sub>B</sub>, ''a''<sub>B</sub> = ''γ''<sub>B</sub>·''c''<sub>B</sub>/''c''° At high dilution, ''γ''<sub>B</sub> = 1. For a dissolved gas G, the activity is the partial pressure, ''p''<sub>G</sub> [Pa] (strictly: fugacity), divided by the unit partial pressure, ''p''° = 1 Pa. The partial pressure is related to the concentration of the gas by the [[solubility]], ''S''<sub>G</sub> [Pa/mol] (''see'' [[Oxygen solubility]]): ''a''<sub>G</sub> = ''c''<sub>G</sub>·''S''<sub>G</sub>/''p''° In general, the relative activity is defined by the chemical potential, ''µ''<sub>X</sub> ''a''<sub>X</sub> = exp[(''µ''<sub>X</sub>-''µ''°)/''RT'']  +
Acyl-CoA oxidase +'''Acyl-CoA oxidase''' is considered as a rate-limiting step in peroxysomal ''β''-oxidation, which carries out few ''β''-oxidation cycles, thus shortening very-long-chain fatty acids (>C<sub>20</sub>). Electrons are directly transferred from FADH<sub>2</sub> to O<sub>2</sub> with the formation of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>.  +
Adaptation +'''Adaptation''' is an evolutionary time scale expression of phenotypic plasticity in response to selective pressures prevailing under various habitat conditions.  +
Add Graph/Delete bottom graph +The active graph is selected by a left click into the graph. The active graph is highlighted and indicated by the Oroboros logo. '''Add:''' A new graph is added at the bottom of the screen. Select plots for display in the new graph, Ctrl+F6 '''Delete: ''' By clicking '''Delete bottom graph''' in the Graph-menu in [[DatLab]], the bottom graph is deleted, which reappears with the same layout by '''Add'''.  +
Additive effect of convergent electron flow +'''Additivity''' describes the princple of substrate control of mitochondrial respiration with [[convergent electron flow]]. The '''additive effect of convergent electron flow''' is a consequence of electron flow converging at the '''[[Q-junction]]''' from respiratory Complexes I and II ([[NS-linked substrate state |NS or CI<small>&</small>II e-input]]). Further additivity may be observed by convergent electron flow through [[Glycerophosphate_dehydrogenase_complex|glycerophosphate dehydrogenase]] and [[electron-transferring flavoprotein complex]]. Convergent electron flow corresponds to the operation of the [[TCA cycle]] and mitochondrial substrate supply ''in vivo''. Physiological substrate combinations supporting convergent NS e-input are required for reconstitution of intracellular TCA cycle function. Convergent electron flow simultaneously through Complexes I and II into the [[Q-junction]] supports higher [[OXPHOS-capacity]] and [[ET-capacity]] than separate electron flow through either CI or CII. The convergent [[NS]] effect may be completely or partially additive, suggesting that conventional bioenergetic protocols with [[Mitochondrial preparations|mt-preparations]] have underestimated cellular OXPHOS-capacities, due to the gating effect through a single branch. Complete additivity is defined as the condition when the sum of separatly measured respiratory capacities, N + S, is identical to the capacity measured in the state with combined substrates, NS (CI<small>&</small>II). This condition of complete additivity, NS=N+S, would be obtained if electron channeling through supercomplex CI, CIII and CIV does not interact with the pool of redox intermediates in the pathway from CII to CIII and CIV, and if the capacity of the phosphorylation system (≈''P'') does not limit OXPHOS-capacity ([[Excess E-P capacity factor |excess ''E-P'' capacity factor]] is zero). In most cases, however, additivity is incomplete, NS < N+S.  +