From Bioblast

high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution



Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid, C5H9NO4, is an amino acid which occurs under physiological conditions mainly as the anion glutamate-, G, with pKa1 = 2.1, pKa2 = 4.07 and pKa3 = 9.47. Glutamate&malate is a substrate combination supporting an N-linked pathway control state, when glutamate is transported into the mt-matrix via the glutamate-aspartate carrier and reacts with oxaloacetate in the transaminase reaction to form aspartate and oxoglutarate. Glutamate as the sole substrate is transported by the electroneutral glutamate-/OH- exchanger, and is oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix by glutamate dehydrogenase to Ξ±-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate), representing the glutamate-anaplerotic pathway control state. Ammonia (the byproduct of the reaction) passes freely through the mitochondrial membrane.

Abbreviation: G

Reference: Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways


Application in HRR

G: Glutamate (L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt hydrate; C₅H₈NNaO₄ Β· xH₂O), Sigma-Aldrich: G1626, store at RT, CAS: 142-47-2, M = 169.1 gΒ·mol-1

Preparation of 2 M stock solution (dissolved in H2O)
  1. Weigh 1.691 g L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt hydrate.
  2. Add 4 mL H2O.
  3. Check pH and adjust to 7.0 if necessary with 5 M KOH (usually the pH is 7 without any adjustment);
  4. Transfer to a 5 mL volumetric glass flask, adjust final volume to 5 mL and divide into 0.5 mL portions.
  5. Store at -20 Β°C.
Β» O2k manual titrations MiPNet09.12 O2k-Titrations
  • Titration volume (2-mL O2k-chamber): 10 Β΅L using a 25 Β΅L Hamilton syringe.
  • Titration volume (0.5-mL O2k-chamber): 2.5 Β΅L using a 10 Β΅L Hamilton syringe
  • Final concentration: 10 mM.

MitoPedia topics: Substrate and metabolite 

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