Sample

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Bioblasts - Richard Altmann and MiPArt by Odra Noel
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MitoPedia

Sample

Description

A sample is one or more parts taken from a system and intended to provide information on the system, often to serve as a basis for evaluation of the system (diagnosis) or for a decision on intervention (therapy, production process). Compare: Primary sample.


Reference: ISO 15189:2012 Medical laboratories — Particular requirements for quality and competence


MitoPedia concepts: MitoFit Quality Control System 


MitoPedia topics: Sample preparation 


Application in HRR

Addition of sample to the respirometer chamber:

Isolated mitochondria (imt): Imt are typically added with a Hamilton syringe. Care should be taken to not exert damaging low pressure during aspiration of the sample into the syringe or exerting high pressure during injection into the chamber.
Living cells (ce) are typically added with a Hamilton syringe. Care should be taken to not exert damaging low pressure during aspiration of the sample into the syringe or exerting high pressure during injection into the chamber. However, after studying the variability obtained using the hamilton syringe or pipetting the cells into the chamber, we encourage the use of the former method.
Very large and/or fragile living cells (ce): Some cell types may be easily damaged when injected with a syringe. For these we recommend: remove the Stopper, replace a defined volume of the respiration medium with cell suspension, close the chamber again. Sometimes (i.e. microalgal cells) the whole volume of the chamber (2 mL) is replaced by the cells suspension with the cell concentration adjusted to the desired value.
PBMCs and Platelets: We recommend adding 2*10^6/mL PBMC, 200*10^6/mL PLT.
Permeabilized tissue (pti): For permeabilized tissue, remove the Stopper, add the permeabilized tissue into the O2k-Chamber, close the chamber again.
Permeabilized muscle fibers (pfi): Remove the Stopper, add the permeabilized fibers into the O2k-Chamber, close the chamber again.
Permeabilized cells (pce): If the cells can be loaded into a syringe, they may be injected with a Hamilton syringe. If the cells are rather fragile, remove the Stopper, replace a defined volume of the respiration medium with cell suspension, close the chamber again.


MitoFit Quality Control System

Communicated by Gnaiger E 2016-01-27; last update 2016-05-28.
Sample and sample type
A sample of a defined sample type subjected to a specific sample preparation (see MitoPedia: Sample preparations) may be, e.g., a mitochondrial preparation obtained from an organ, cells suspended from a cell culture dish, a tissue biopsy, an organ, an individual organism, or a group of organisms (e.g. a number of nematodes studied collectively in an experimental chamber).
Example: Sample and subsample
A blood sample or a biopsy taken from an individual organism. The sample size, N, corresponds to the number replica, e.g. N organisms in a study group (arm). A sample may be processed and split into a number of subsamples (e.g. smaller volumes of serum taken from a larger volume of serum) for (i) application of different types of assay, and (ii) a number of repetitions, n, of the same assay on the same sample.