From Bioblast

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IUPAC distinguishes three definitions of 'substrate': (1) The chemical entity whose conversion to a product or products is catalysed by one or several enzymes. (2) A solution or dry mixture containing all ingredients which are necessary for the growth of a microbial culture or for product formation. (3) Component in the nutrient medium, supplying the organisms with carbon (C-substrate), nitrogen (N-substrate), etc.

A substrate in a chemical reaction has a negative stoichiometric number since it is consumed, whereas a product has a positive stoichiometric number since it is produced.


External and internal substrates in enzyme-catalyzed reactions

The general definition of a substrate in an enzyme-catalized reaction relies on the definition of the chemical reaction, without restriction to the nature of the substrate, i.e. independent of the substrate being a chemical entity in solution or a loosely bound cosubstrate (coenzyme) or even a tightly bound prosthetic group. The latter may be explicitly distinguished as a bound substrate from a free substrate. Even different substrate pools may coexist.


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Bioblast links: Substrates and cofactors - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
Β» Substrate
Β» Product
Β» Substrates as electron donors
Β» Cellular substrates
Β» MitoPedia: Substrates and metabolites
Β» Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration
Β» Cofactor
Β» Coenzyme, cosubstrate
Β» Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Β» Coenzyme Q2
Β» Prosthetic group
Β» Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Β» Gnaiger E (2023) Complex II ambiguities ― FADH2 in the electron transfer system. MitoFit Preprints 2023.3.v6.

MitoPedia topics: Substrate and metabolite 

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