Coenzyme Q2

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Coenzyme Q2



Coenzyme Q2 or ubiquinone-2 or ubiquinone Q2 is a quinone derivate composed of a benzoquinone ring with an isoprenoid side chain consisting of two isoprenoid groups, with two methoxy groups, and with one methyl group. In HRR it is used to detect the redox changes of the Q-junction in conjunction with the Q-Module, since CoQ2 can react both with CI, CII and CIII at their quinone-binding sites and with the detecting electrode.

Abbreviation: CoQ2

Reference: Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways, MiPNet24.12 NextGen-O2k: Q-Module

Application in HRR

Q2 : Coenzyme Q2 (Sigma Aldrich, C8081, MW: 318.41; 2,3-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-geranyl-1,4-benzoquinone, Ubiquinone-2, oxidized form)
Caution: Light sensitive (store solution in a dark glass vial).
Preparation of 10 mM stock solution (dissolved in ethanol) (to run cyclic voltammetry)
  1. Dissolve one commercial vial of Q2 (2 mg) Q2 in 628 µL 99.9% ethanol.
  2. Divide into 50 µL aliquots in dark glass vials.
  3. Store frozen at -20 °C.

Preparation of 1 mM stock solution (to measure the Q redox ratio)
  1. Dilute 50 µL of the 10 mM stock with 450 µL 99.9% ethanol.
  2. Divide into 50 µL aliquots in dark glass vials.
  3. Store frozen at -20 °C.

O2k manual titrations MiPNet09.12 O2k-Titrations
Q redox ratio
  • Titration volume: 2 µL of the 1 mM stock solution using a 10 µL syringe (2 mL O2k-Chamber).
  • Final concentration: 1 µM

Cyclic voltammetry
  • Titration volume: 6 µL of the 10 mM stock solution using a 10 µL syringe (2 mL O2k-Chamber).
  • Final concentration: 30 µM



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Publications: Q

Szibor 2019 Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg2019Szibor Marten, Gainutdinov Timur, Fernandez-Vizarra Erika, Dufour Eric, Gizatullina Zemfira, Debska-Vielhaber Grazyna, Heidler Juliana, Wittig Ilka, Viscomi Carlo, Gellerich Frank Norbert, Moore Anthony L (2019) Bioenergetic consequences from xenotopic expression of a tunicate AOX in mouse mitochondria: switch from RET and ROS to FET. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 1861:148137.MouseHeart
Cermakova 2019 Parasite2019Čermáková P, Kovalinka T, Ferenczyová K, Horváth A (2019) Coenzyme Q2 is a universal substrate for the measurement of respiratory chain enzyme activities in trypanosomatids. Parasite 26:17.
Takahashi 2019 Arch Biochem Biophys2019Takahashi T, Mine Y, Okamoto T (2019) Extracellular coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is reduced to ubiquinol-10 by intact Hep G2 cells independent of intracellular CoQ10 reduction. Arch Biochem Biophys 672:108067.
Spinazzi 2019 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2019Spinazzi M, Radaelli E, Horré K, Arranz AM, Gounko NV, Agostinis P, Maia TM, Impens F, Morais VA, Lopez-Lluch G, Serneels L, Navas P, De Strooper B (2019) PARL deficiency in mouse causes Complex III defects, coenzyme Q depletion, and Leigh-like syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116:277-86.MouseNervous systemNeurodegenerative
Martinez-Cifuentes 2017 Molecules2017Martínez-Cifuentes M, Salazar R, Ramírez-Rodríguez O, Weiss-López B, Araya-Maturana R (2017) Experimental and theoretical reduction potentials of some biologically active ortho-carbonyl para-quinones. Molecules 22:577.
Acosta 2016 Biochim Biophys Acta2016Acosta MJ, Vazquez Fonseca L, Desbats MA, Cerqua C, Zordan R, Trevisson E, Salviati L (2016) Coenzyme Q biosynthesis in health and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 1857:1079-85.
Fragaki 2016 Biol Res2016Fragaki K, Chaussenot A, Benoist JF, Ait-El-Mkadem S, Bannwarth S, Rouzier C, Cochaud C, Paquis-Flucklinger V (2016) Coenzyme Q10 defects may be associated with a deficiency of Q10-independent mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Biol Res 49:4.
García-Corzo 2015 Biochim Biophys Acta2015García-Corzo L, Luna-Sánchez M, Doerrier C, Ortiz F, Escames G, Acuña-Castroviejo D, López LC (2015) Ubiquinol-10 ameliorates mitochondrial encephalopathy associated with CoQ deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta 1842:893-901.
La Guardia 2013 Front Physiol2013La Guardia PG, Alberici LC, Ravagnani FG, Catharino RR, Vercesi AE (2013) Protection of rat skeletal muscle fibers by either L-carnitine or coenzyme Q10 against statins toxicity mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen generation. Front Physiol 4:103.RatSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
Song 2011 Free Radical Biol Med2011Song Y, Buettner GB (2011) Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for the reaction of semiquinone radicals to form superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Free Radical Biol Med 919-962.Oxidative stress;RONS
Albury 2009 Physiol Plant2009Albury MS, Elliott C, Moore AL (2009) Towards a structural elucidation of the alternative oxidase in plants. Physiol Plant 137:316-27.
Pich 2002 Free Radic Res2002Pich MM, Castagnoli A, Biondi A, Bernacchia A, Tazzari PL, D'Aurelio M, Castelli GP, Formiggini G, Conte R, Bovina C, Lenaz G (2002) Ubiquinol and a coenzyme Q reducing system protect platelet mitochondrial function of transfusional buffy coats from oxidative stress. Free Radic Res 36:429-36.Blood cells
Oxidative stress;RONSAging;senescence
Affourtit 2001 J Biol Chem2001Affourtit C, Krab K, Leach GR, Whitehouse DG, Moore AL (2001) New insights into the regulation of plant succinate dehydrogenase. On the role of the protonmotive force. J Biol Chem 276:32567-74.
Goetz 2000 J Neural Transm (Vienna)2000Götz ME, Gerstner A, Harth R, Dirr A, Janetzky B, Kuhn W, Riederer P, Gerlach M (2000) Altered redox state of platelet coenzyme Q10 in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 107:41-8.
Affourtit 1999 J Biol Chem1999Affourtit C, Albury MS, Krab K, Moore AL (1999) Functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase affects growth of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem 274:6212-8.
Wagner 1998 Plant Physiol1998Wagner AM, Wagner MJ, Moore AL (1998) In vivo ubiquinone reduction levels during thermogenesis in araceae. Plant Physiol 117:1501-6.
Meunier 1995 Biochemistry1995Meunier B, Madgwick SA, Reil E, Oettmeier W, Rich PR (1995) New inhibitors of the quinol oxidation sites of bacterial cytochromes bo and bd. Biochemistry 34:1076-83.
Rauchova 1995 Physiol Res1995Rauchová H, Drahota Z, Lenaz G (1995) Function of coenzyme Q in the cell: some biochemical and physiological properties. Physiol Res 44:209-16.
Van den Bergen 1994 Eur J Biochem1994Van den Bergen CW, Wagner AM, Krab K, Moore AL (1994) The relationship between electron flux and the redox poise of the quinone pool in plant mitochondria. Interplay between quinol-oxidizing and quinone-reducing pathways. Eur J Biochem 226:1071-8.
Day 1991 Plant Physiol1991Day DA, Dry IB, Soole KL, Wiskich JT, Moore AL (1991) Regulation of alternative pathway activity in plant mitochondria: deviations from Q-pool behavior during oxidation of NADH and quinols. Plant Physiol 95:948-53.
Moore 1991 Plant Physiol1991Moore AL, Dry IB, Wiskich JT (1991) Regulation of electron transport in plant mitochondria under state 4 conditions. Plant Physiol 95:34-40.
Zannoni 1990 FEBS Lett1990Zannoni D, Moore AL (1990) Measurement of the redox state of the ubiquinone pool in Rhodobacter capsulatus membrane fragments. FEBS Lett 271:123-7.
Dry 1989 Arch Biochem Biophys1989Dry IB, Moore AL, Day DA, Wiskich JT (1989) Regulation of alternative pathway activity in plant mitochondria: nonlinear relationship between electron flux and the redox poise of the quinone pool. Arch Biochem Biophys 273:148-57.
Rich 1984 Biochim Biophys Acta1984Rich PR (1984) Electron and proton transfers through quinones and cytochrome bc complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta 768:53-79.
Rich 1979 FEBS Lett1979Rich PR, Bendall DS (1979) A mechanism for the reduction of cytochromes by quinols in solution and its relevance to biological electron transfer reactions. FEBS Lett 105:189-94.

Abstracts: Q
Ravasz 2019 Abstract IOC1412019Ravasz D, Bui D, Kitayev A, Greenwood B, Hill C, Komlodi T, Doerrier C, Ozohanics O, Moore AL, Gnaiger E, Kiebish M, Kolev K, Seyfried TN, Willis WT, Narain N, Adam-Vizi V, Chinopoulos C (2019) Endogenous quinones sustain a moderate NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia. Mitochondr Physiol Network 24.02.MouseLiver
Komlodi 2018b EBEC20182018Endogenous quinones sustain NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia, supporting substrate-level phosphorylation in mouse liver mitochondria.MouseLiverPermeability transition
Oxidative stress;RONS
Ravasz 2018 Abstract The evolving concept of mitochondria2018Vast pools of endogenous quinones sustain NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia, supporting substrate-level phosphorylation in mouse liver mitochondria.MouseLiverOther
Komlodi 2018 AussieMit2018Komlodi T, Hunger M, Moore AL, Gnaiger E (2018) Electron transfer at the Q-junction: new perspectives from combined measurement of mitochondrial O2 flux, H2O2 flux, and coenzyme Q redox state. AussieMit 2018 Melbourne AU.MouseNervous system
Komlodi 2018 EBEC20182018Electron supply to the Q-junction: assessment of mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 flux and the redox state of the Q-pool.MouseNervous systemOxidative stress;RONS
Moore 2017 MiPschool Obergurgl2017
Anthony Moore
The electron transfer-pathway – Q redox regulation and mitochondrial pathways to oxygen.