The amount of substance, n, is a base physical quantity, and the corresponding SI unit is the mole [mol]. Amount of substance (sometimes abbreviated as 'amount' or 'chemical amount') is proportional to the number NX of specified elementary entities X, and the universal proportionality constant is the reciprocal value of the Avogadro constant (SI),
nX = NX·NA-1
nX contained in a system can change due to internal and external transformations,
dnX = dinX + denX
In the absence of nuclear reactions, the amount of any atom is conserved, e.g., for carbon dinC = 0. This is different for chemical substances or ionic species which are produced or consumed during the advancement of a reaction, r,
A change in the amount of Xi, dni, in an open system is due to both the internal formation in chemical transformations, drni, and the external transfer, deni, across the system boundaries. dni is positive if Xi is formed as a product of the reaction within the system. deni is negative if Xi flows out of the system and appears as a product in the surroundings (Cohen 2008 IUPAC Green Book).
Abbreviation: n [mol]
Communicated by Gnaiger E (last update 2020-05-27)
|Bureau International des Poids et Mesures 2019 The International System of Units (SI)||Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2019) The International System of Units (SI). 9th edition:117-216 ISBN 978-92-822-2272-0.||2019|
|Cohen 2008 IUPAC Green Book||Cohen ER, Cvitas T, Frey JG, Holmström B, Kuchitsu K, Marquardt R, Mills I, Pavese F, Quack M, Stohner J, Strauss HL, Takami M, Thor HL (2008) Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry. IUPAC Green Book 3rd Edition, 2nd Printing, IUPAC & RSC Publishing, Cambridge.||2008|
|Gnaiger 1993 Pure Appl Chem||Gnaiger E (1993) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of energy transformations. Pure Appl Chem 65:1983-2002.||1993|
|Gnaiger 2020 MitoPathways||Gnaiger E (2020) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 5th ed. Bioenerg Commun 2020.2 (in prep).||2020|
|MitoFit 2020.4.v0||Gnaiger Erich (2020) A X-mass Carol. Account of the elementaries of Body Mass Excess. MitoFit Preprint Arch 2020.4.v0.|
|BEC 2020.1 doi10.26124bec2020-0001.v1||Gnaiger Erich et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1. doi:10.26124/bec:2020-0001.v1.||2020|Quantity Symbol for quantity Q Symbol for dimension Name of SI unit Symbol for SI unit uQ [*] length l L meter m mass m M kilogram kg time t T second s electric current I I ampere A thermodynamic temperature T Θ kelvin K amount of substance *,§ nX = NX·NA-1 N mole mol count *,$ NX X elementary unit x elementary entity *,$ UX U elementary unit x charge *,€ Qe = NX·zX·e I·T coulomb C = A·s luminous intensity Iv J candela cd
- [*] »SI base units, except for the canonical 'elementary unit' [x]. The following footnotes are canonical comments.
- * For the quantities n, N, U, and Q, the entity-type X of the elementary entity UX has to be specified in the text and indicated by a subscript: nO2; Nce; Qe.
- § Amount nX is an elementary quantity, converting the elementary unit [x] into moles [mol] using the Avogadro constant, NA.
- $ Count NX equals the number of elementary entities UX. In the SI, the quantity 'count' is explicitly considered as an exception: "Each of the seven base quantities used in the SI is regarded as having its own dimension. .. All other quantities, with the exception of counts, are derived quantities" (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures 2019 The International System of Units (SI)). An elementary entity UX is not a count (UX is not a number of UX). NX has the dimension X of a count and UX has the dimension U of an elementary entity, and both quantities have the same unit, the 'elementary unit' [x].
- € Charge is a derived SI quantity. Charge is an elementary quantity, converting the elementary unit [x] into coulombs [C] using the elementary charge, e, or converting moles [mol] into coulombs [C] using the Faraday constant, F. zX is the charge number of elementary entity UX, which is a constant for any defined elementary entity UX. Qe = nX·zX·F
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Quantity name Symbol Unit name Symbol Comment elementary UX elementary unit [x] UX, UB; [x] not in SI count NX elementary unit [x] NX, NB; [x] not in SI number N - dimensionless = NX·UX-1 amount of substance nB mole [mol] nX, nB electric current I ampere [A] A = C·s-1 time t second [s] length l meter [m] SI: metre mass m kilogram [kg] thermodynamic temperature T kelvin [K] luminous intensity IV candela [cd]
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