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2,4-dinitrophenole (C6H4N2O5; M = 184.11 g·mol-1) is a protonophore acting as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation.

Abbreviation: DNP

Reference: Steinlechner-Maran 1996 Am J Physiol Cell Physiol

2,4-dinitrophenole (DNP) is a compound that was designed for the manufacture of munitions during the first world war and lately described in 1933 by Maurice Tainter as a weight loss drug due to its effect on basal metabolic rate. DNP decreases the ADP phosphorylation in mitochondria preventing the uptake of inorganic phosphate into the organelle. At the same time, its characteristics as ionophore stimulates oxygen consumption, increasing proton conductance and heat dissipation.

Application in HRR

Preparation of 10 mM DNP stock solution (dissolved in H2O):
Caution: Toxic!
  1. Weigh 3.7 mg of DNP (M = 184.11 g·mol-1).
  2. Dissolve in 1.2 mL H2O.
  3. Neutralize with 1 M KOH.
  4. Adjust final volume to 2 mL and divide into 0.2 mL portions.
  5. Store at -20 °C.


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» Noncoupled respiration: Discussion
» Uncoupler
» Uncoupled respiration - see » Noncoupled respiration
» Uncoupling proteins
» Uncoupling protein 1
» Uncoupler titrations - Optimum uncoupler concentration
Respiratory states and control ratios
» Biochemical coupling efficiency
» Coupling-control state
» Electron-transfer-pathway state
» Electron-transfer pathway
E.jpg ET capacity
» E-L coupling efficiency
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» Flux control ratio
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» OXPHOS capacity; » State 3
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» ROUTINE-control ratio
» ROUTINE respiration
» ROUTINE state
» State 3u
» State 4
» Uncoupling-control ratio UCR
General (alphabetical order)
» Adenine nucleotide translocase
» Adenylates
» Electron transfer pathway
» Mitochondrial preparations
» mt-membrane potential
» Oxygen flux
» Phosphorylation system
» Proton leak
» Proton slip
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MitoPedia topics: Uncoupler