Coupling-control state

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Coupling-control state


Coupling-control states are defined in mitochondrial preparations (isolated mitochondria, permeabilized cells, permeabilized tissues, homogenates) as LEAK respiration, OXPHOS, and ET states, with corresponding respiration rates (L, P, E) in any electron-transfer-pathway state which is competent for electron transfer. These coupling states are induced by titration of ADP and uncouplers, and application of specific inhibitors of the phosphorylation pathway. In living cells, the coupling-control states are LEAK respiration, ROUTINE, and ET states of respiration with corresponding rates L, R, E, using membrane-permeable inhibitors of the phosphorylation system (e.g. oligomycin) and uncouplers (e.g. CCCP). Coupling-control protocols induce these coupling-control states sequentially at a constant electron-transfer-pathway state.

Abbreviation: CCS

Reference: BEC 2020.1, Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways, Gnaiger 2009 Int J Biochem Cell Biol

Coupling-control states: OXPHOS capacity ROUTINE respiration ET capacity LEAK respiration - ROX

Communicated by Gnaiger E (2011-02-25) last update 2020-11-11.

SUITbrowser question: Coupling control

Coupling-control protocols are SUIT protocols that allow to analyze coupling control in living cells or mitochondrial preparations.
Use the SUITbrowser to find the best protocol to answer this and other research questions.




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Mitochondrial and cellular respiratory rates in coupling-control states

OXPHOS-coupled energy cycles. Source: The Blue Book
» Baseline state
Respiratory rate Definition Icon
OXPHOS capacity P = -Rox P.jpg mt-preparations
ROUTINE respiration R = -Rox R.jpg living cells
ET capacity E = -Rox E.jpg » Level flow
» Noncoupled respiration - Uncoupler
LEAK respiration L = -Rox L.jpg » Static head
» LEAK state with ATP
» LEAK state with oligomycin
» LEAK state without adenylates
Residual oxygen consumption Rox L = -Rox ROX.jpg
  • Chance and Williams nomenclature: respiratory states
» State 1 —» State 2 —» State 3 —» State 4 —» State 5

Flux control ratios related to coupling in mt-preparations and living cells

» Flux control ratio
» Coupling-control ratio
» Coupling-control protocol
FCR Definition Icon
L/P coupling-control ratio L/P L/P coupling-control ratio » Respiratory acceptor control ratio, RCR = P/L
L/R coupling-control ratio L/R L/R coupling-control ratio
L/E coupling-control ratio L/E L/E coupling-control ratio » Uncoupling-control ratio, UCR = E/L
P/E control ratio P/E P/E control ratio
R/E control ratio R/E R/E control ratio
net P/E control ratio (P-L)/E net P/E control ratio
net R/E control ratio (R-L)/E net R/E control ratio

Net, excess, and reserve capacities of respiration

Respiratory net rate Definition Icon
P-L net OXPHOS capacity P-L P-L net OXPHOS  capacity
R-L net ROUTINE capacity R-L R-L net ROUTINE capacity
E-L net ET capacity E-L E-L net ET capacity
E-P excess capacity E-P E-P excess capacity
E-R reserve capacity E-R E-R reserve capacity

Flux control efficiencies related to coupling-control ratios

» Flux control efficiency jZ-Y
» Background state
» Reference state
» Metabolic control variable
Coupling-control efficiency Definition Icon Canonical term
P-L control efficiency jP-L = (P-L)/P = 1-L/P P-L control efficiency P-L OXPHOS-flux control efficiency
R-L control efficiency jR-L = (R-L)/R = 1-L/R R-L control efficiency R-L ROUTINE-flux control efficiency
E-L coupling efficiency jE-L = (E-L)/E = 1-L/E E-L coupling efficiency E-L ET-coupling efficiency » Biochemical coupling efficiency
E-P control efficiency jE-P = (E-P)/E = 1-P/E E-P control efficiency E-P ET-excess flux control efficiency
E-R control efficiency jE-R = (E-R)/E = 1-R/E E-R control efficiency E-R ET-reserve flux control efficiency


» Basal respiration
» Cell ergometry
» Dyscoupled respiration
» Dyscoupling
» Electron leak
» Electron-transfer-pathway state
» Hyphenation
» Oxidative phosphorylation
» Oxygen flow
» Oxygen flux
» Permeabilized cells
» Phosphorylation system
» Proton leak
» Proton slip
» Respiratory state
» Uncoupling


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MitoPedia concepts: MiP concept, Respiratory state, SUIT concept, SUIT state, Recommended 

MitoPedia methods: Respirometry 

MitoPedia topics: EAGLE