MitoFit 2020.4.v0

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MitoFit 2020.4.v0

Publications in the MiPMap
Gnaiger Erich (2020) A X-mass Carol. From Quantities, Symbols, and Units to Body Mass Excess and mitObesity. MitoFit Preprint Arch 2020.4.v0.


Author ()

Abstract: Pre-preprint version 0 (v0.1) (2020-06-13) last update 2020-07-04


Humbug is a hot issue at a time of bugs and irreproducibility in science, fake news in social media, and a sense of mistrust in the solutions of the COVID 19 crisis, obesity pandemic, global warming, and destruction of biological diversity. Trust in research calls for a language that is understood and makes sense. It is not uncommon, that even fundamental terms at the very basis of counting and measuring pop up in the literature in ways that do not make sense, to the extent of loosing the message and trust in the meaning. A new understanding of the concepts of counting and measuring is provided in a nutshell or NUCE: on Numbers, Units, for Counting of Entities X. In CASE of little interest in a Counting, Assembling, and Sorting Experience, readers may jump across X to the body mass excess (BME) with the XXX-mass related mitObesity syndrome. The decline of mitochondrial fitness in overweight states provides a mechanistic link between common obesity and associated chronic comorbidities — such as diabetes, hypertension and chronic hear failure, neurodegenerative diseases and several types of cancer. Today mitObesity is the world-wide leading cause of deaths and early aging, which can be prevented by an active lifestyle with physical exercise and caloric balance. The COVID 19 pandemic demonstrates the fragility of the world's health and economic systems, demanding immediate action. The mitObesity pandemic strikes less dramatically but by far more penetrating in today's societies all over the world. Scientists and politicians who did not listen to the predominant scientific advice should have received a lesson in the COVID 19 crisis. Today's societies must take a lesson to fight the mitObesity pandemic, global warming, and destruction of biological diversity.

Keywords: Amount of substance, Bit, Body mass, Cell respiration, Buglish, Canonical and practical, Canonical ensemble, Concentration, Count, Dimension, Entity, Extroduction, Flow, Flux, Format, IUPAC, International System of Units, Isolated mitochondria, Living cells, Mass, Measure, MitoPedia, Molar mass, Normalization of rate, Object, Organism, Permeabilized cells, Publish, Sample, System, Unit, Volume

Canonical Carol.jpg
MitObesity-epidemic pic.jpg



NUCE-nested 2.jpg
  1. The first X-mass Carol is a series of canonical carols in the form of discussions and reflections on science, scientific publication, and communication at an X-mass party. Practically, this is the extroduction.
  2. The second XX-mass carol provides a technical-theoretical-canonical summary of the concepts discussed on counting and measuring. (1) Objects or (2) assemblies of objects or (3) groups of assemblies are counted in a sample obtained from (4) an ensemble and added to an experimental system. By adding a sample containing countable entities with the aim of relating to the count, (1) a homogenous experimental system is transformed into (2) a compartmental nested experimental system, which is contained in (3) the instrumental system, which is contained in (4) the real world including the experimenter and the ensemble. Since a sample is obtained from an ensemble with the aim of obtaining information on the ensemble, there is error propagation from (1) sampling, (2) filling the experimental system, (3) using the instrumental system for counting and measuring, and (4) drawing conclusions from counting and measuring on concepts about the real world. How resulting conceptions of the real world shape our perceptions of the world is another question, that pops up when considering that the real world is contained in the world. When this fundamental question is really asked, the consequences may be to (1) push down to improve the operating procedures, (2) push down to improve or innovate instrumental systems, (3) pop up to a different ensemble, or (4) stop with re-search and pop out of the loop. Canonical communication — if it happens – is the glue that holds these levels together, from medium to message to meaning. Canonically, this is the introduction.
    BME from mt to brain.jpg
  3. The third XXX-mass carol introduces the concept of body mass excess (BME) in relation to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The BME is shown to be a superior index of obesity based on the same measurements of body mass and height, removing the biases of the BMI for women and men, adults and children, and across ethnic groups. The association of obesity and decline of mitochondrial functional fitness provides a mechanistic link between obesity and comorbidities that are the most fundamental challenges of the modern health systems world-wide.

X-mass carols: Extroduction

NUCE-nested 5.jpg
  1. The X-mass carols aim at providing a new understanding of the concepts of counting and measuring, to crack the code for communication from physical and chemical sciences to molecular biology and mitochondrial physiology. Although we are familiar with the concepts of counting and measuring — or we are counting and measuring without feeling a need to be familiar with these concepts —, established systems of quantities, symbols, and units do not sufficiently reflect the fact that quantities for measurement of size (mass [kg], volume [L]) are opposite to a group of quantities that are strictly linked to counting (count [x], amount [mol], charge [C]). The units 'mole' for amount and 'coulomb' for charge are connected to the unit 'counting-unit' [x] for count by fixed stoichiometries, but [x] is not part of the International System of Units (SI).
  2. The X-mass carols are relevant to all areas of science and philosophy and all disciplines that are involved with counting and measuring. However, for strictly Practical-Technical realists PT, the X-mass Carol is too theoretical. For Technical-Theoretical gray matter TT, the X-mass carols are practically too green. You do not have to stay away from Theoretical-Canonical nerds TC, they behave anyway like an isolated system. If you identify yourself as a PTCPractical&Technical-Theoretical&Canonical — then pop up to add your comments on the X-mass Carol.
  3. The X-mass carols are written in recursive form about recursive systems, where an experimental system is contained in an instrumental system, an extroduction introduces the introduction, and the quantity 'count' devours its own physicochemical unit [x]. Enjoy the X-mass Carol from beginning to end, to realize that the beginning is not in the introduction, and the beginning is not in the extroduction. The theme is: BAH! Humbug! The meaning of BAH! will be explained extempore, the retrograde and self-referential meaning of Humbug! is: back to Humbug ― the end and the beginning.
This extroduction is the external or executive introduction to the X-mass Carol.

X-mass carols on quantities, symbols, and units. Canons composed in the spirit of Douglas R Hofstadter

While there exists only one single X-mass Carol, there is a potential maximum number of extroductory Canons set by the global number of counting human people. Babies are able to count before being taught to count and before talking, and the capacity to count is not restricted to the human species. For each group of persons and species a different pattern triggers counting. This trigger-pattern should be encoded into each specific extroductory Canon. Such a large number of Canons cannot be included within the X-mass Carol, since it would blow up its word count beyond a reasonable number of words allowed in a scientific system of publication. The word-count expansion in the extroduction aims at introducing different PTC-audiences to the why should I open the box, and to the how to read it's contents. The Extroduction is the manual for the augmented X-mass Carol and diminuted BEC 2020.1. As usual, a manual for the X-mass Carol cannot be well understood without reading the X-mass Carol, which should be used as a manual for the extroductory Canons. BEC 2020.1 is another manual for the X-mass Carol. As always, read the manual first.

Canon E: Table of extroductory Canons

Canon Title
H Historical stories, novels and philosophical bestsellers. BAH! Humbug!
T Funny Table
P Are you Practical&Technical-Theoretical&Canonical with a bite of PTC-mood?
X Taking part in an X-mass party
F Take Five while Zen unexplains the identity of X and System H
B To drink or not to drink Beer
E Table of Extroductory Canons
O Supplement O: Assembly of Canonical Carol Canons on the Oroboros Ecosystem

Canon H: Historical stories, novels and philosophical bestsellers. BAH! Humbug!

  • Figure H 1. Thomas Rowlandson Humbugging, or raising the Devil (1800), illustrating Charles Dickens and L. Frank Baum’s Bah! Humbug! - Source

  • Figure H 2. The wonderful wizard of OZ.

  • Figure H 3. Lewis Carroll Through the looking glass (1871)

  • BAH! Humbug! ― is the theme of the X-mass carols on terminology that found its roots in Charls Dickens novella A Christmas Carol (1843) (Figure H 1) and L Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (Figure H 2). But first of all BAH is inspired by a canonical Carroll: Lewis Carroll’s novel Through the Looking-Glass (Figures H 3 and H 4), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) referred to by Douglas Richard Hofstadter in his book Gödel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. A metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll (1979). MC Escher’s Dragon ― the Ouroboros (Figure H 5) ― is a canonical self-referential symbol that penetrates BAH from beginning to end and from the end to the beginning: when the Highest-level system H devours itself and becomes its own Body B, and backwards when Bit B creates its own system B, when the object Body B inflates into its own system Body B ― when the medium is the message. The book The Medium is the Massage (1967) was co-created by Herbert Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore (Figure H 6).
  • Figure H 4. Lewis Carroll's Lewis Carrols‘ Jabberwocky

  • Figure H 5. Maurits Cornelis Escher Dragon (1952) – the Ouroboros

  • Figure H 6. The medium is the massage (1967)

  • Canon T: Funny Table

    Subtle dualistic meaning of a term and a mix-up of context are at the heart of a good joke: the meaning of a term in one context takes us by surprise when pushed into a different box with a paradoxical result, and when we pop up we are laughing, mainly at our own cognitive selves. Recursive laughing is compassionate, terminating laughing is unconcerned. Did you get it: this was no joke? Please, sit down at a table, fill in a pint of beer, and fill in Table T, particularly if the joke was good, but you did not laugh.
    Table T. Fill in Funny Table T. — Manual to Table T: If you do not understand English or the English was un-understandable, but the joke was VERY good, then fill in "Good joke? Y" \ "Funny? N". Am I a joke and not laughing? The owner of this Manual declares not to hold any material, philosophical, or psychological responsibility for cases, when the joke was not good ("Good joke? N"), but you did laugh ("Funny? Y").
    # Introduction Body Good joke? Y/N Funny? Y/N What?
    1a A terminating non-laughing double-recursive joke If it does not make you laugh, don't blame it on the joke. — Why did you not laugh? It was such a good joke! Y/N Y/N The X-mass carol about jokes
    1b A Funny Joke party Funny jokes J1 and J2 enjoy another beer together. J1: My good friend J2, you really improved a lot since the last beer, have another one and you will feel as good as me. — J2: Indeed my dear J1 (ha), I feel much better (haha), and I cannot stop laughing (hahaha), but I do not see you laughing (hahahahahahaha). — J1: Ha? Y/N Y/N The X-mass carol of jokes
    2a BAH! Humbug! This cannot be completely useless, it can serve as a bad example. Y/N Y/N Humbug
    2b X-files unit Scully: You have seen this before, I can tell. You lied to them. — Mulder: I would never lie. I willfully participated in a campaign of misinformation. Y/N Y/N X-files unit.jpg
    3a Except at infinity (bottom-up X-mass party) Parallel lines cannot know what they have in common. They never met. Y/N Y/N Open
    3b On return from infinity (top-down X-mass party) Parallel lines know what they have in common. That's why they never meet again. Y/N Y/N Closed
    3c Without infinity (no X-mass party) PI: We all can make mistakes. — SI: True, I did it, too! — PI: You are right, it is so difficult. We need a larger team. — Dr. Zen: If we all make the same mistake, the smaller team wins. Y/N Y/N Economical
    4 Author: Henny Youngman When I read about the evils of drinking, I gave up reading. Y/N Y/N Blame it on Henny
    5a Through the looking glass Looking into a mirror I cannot see myself looking. Y/N Y/N Bad quality: eyes or mirror?
    5b I and me like a good mirror I, for one, like Roman numerals. Y/N Y/N In love with I-self
    6 A practical guide to units Doctor: I have to tell you quickly that you suffer from a terminal illness and have only ten to live. — Patient: What do you mean, ten? Ten what? Months? Weeks?! — Doctor: Nine. Y/N Y/N By now: 8
    In the Practical-Technical world, dualistic terminology is not perceived as a problem. It would be funny, if perceived as a problem. Laughing about Funny Table is funny only, if you see a problem when there is a problem. What is funny in the Funny Table is another question, but not a problem.
    In practical language we cannot but (1) use dualistic terminology, (2) remain vague about background, skipping accurate and lengthy definitions of context, and (3) give a sloppy representation of the hierarchy in nested compartments when pushing down and popping up confusingly between different layers. Practical language works very well, that is why it can be used with great confidence. Uncritical faith in the medium 'practical language' entails the danger of failure in linking the medium with the message, when communication is what has not happened. Lack of any faith in the prospect, that the medium and the meaning have anything in common, stops communication by an endless recursive loop of explanations of explanations. Does a term describe the object of our investigation? Or is the term an object, worthwhile of canonical investigation? Was it perceived as a joke, or should one explain the joke?
    Escher (1960) Ascending and Descending
    A funny joke is funny, but why does the Funny Joke not laugh? Explaining a funny joke is not funny. Explaining a funny joke is a nagging problem in all cases, it is both boring and insulting. If you explain a joke to me, it is insulting because I am perceived as the one who does not understand, and it is boring because I am the one who (1) has understood, or (2) did not understand and is not interested in understanding. 'Funny' can be traced back to the verb fun with the original meaning "to cheat" or "to hoax", and is as such closely connected to "BAH! Humbug!
    It needs an extroduction to make me interested in understanding something that I do not understand. It is the inherent curiosity that makes me interested in finding out what is funny in something not perceived as being funny. Inherent curiosity is the fun of finding funny things instead of just laughing about a funny thing, creating a funny table instead of just finding a joke funny in the table, inventing an instrument and writing a manual instead of just using the instrument and not reading the manual.
    The extroduction to inherent curiosity is the evolutionary background that shaped inherent curiosity over millions of generations: without inborn inherent curiosity a species does not survive. That is why inherent curiosity is a necessary feature of healthy children. Whereas intelligent children enjoy telling a joke again and again, this attitude fades away as a system becomes mature. A good scientist enjoys running an experiment again and again, learning more about reproducibility, variability, and outliers, until the apparent outlier pops up as the greatest discovery. A good runner enjoys running again and again, until the experience of perfection in running replaces the experience of running. Loosing inherent curiosity is loosing health. This comes sooner or later with aging.
    Canonical form can be seen in the effort to explain and investigate a joke without end of explaining and investigating (Figure: Penrose Steps in MC Escher's Ascending and Descending). This is important, because a joke that is not only good but interesting has more than one layer. When I am laughing about a joke in a group of laughing buddies, perhaps different layers of the joke have been perceived by anybody laughing. Even if you are not laughing about an interesting joke, I cannot know if you are not laughing because the first layers were trivial and you did not get the deeper layers, or if you did not get any layer at all. In canonical form the problem is solved by slicing off layer by layer to see all the bits. This can drive everybody crazy or put us all asleep, if the practical aim is lost — if it is not fun.
    Is the fun in the doing, or in the objective of the doing? Like every form, canonical form needs context. Canonical form is inappropriate at an X-mas party, but is the whole meaning of the X-mass party. Canonical form is literally out of place in an Abstract or even in the entire publication, to keep it readable. But canonical form may be essential in a Manual, which makes it unreadable. Inherent curiosity keeps us going in canonical form in the context of a practical question. Canonical and practical may be seen as the opposites in a spectrum of practical-technical-theoretical-canonical regression. Inherent curiosity is lost, if the opposite ends are disconneted. Then you become either a practical-technical realo who stays away from the kids, or a theoretical-canonical nerd from whom the kids stay away. Playing children can be tremendously canonical, no matter if you are an Adult playing to be a child, or you are a Child playing. If their endless playing assumes the canonical nature of a closed-system, then we see symptoms of autism. If they stop playing at all and are reduced to practical tasks and lack of curiosity, then we see symptoms of autism. The unconnected ends of the personality spectrum have the same thing in common: they share the property of lack of connectedness. This is why autistic parallel lines can never meet.
    Extroductory Canons are all about dualistic terminology, mix-up of context, thinking Beer but talking Bottle, confusing system, compartment, ensemble, sample, and object. This is taken to the extreme when the object becomes its own object. Are you one of the 666 coauthors of 'Mitochondrial physiology' (BEC 2020.1)? Am I in a bad joke and laughing? Am I a joke and not laughing? When is a good joke not funny? How do you see yourself as an object? In the Looking Glass is the answer, but only if I can look at all. Let's look together, who we are and how we are, in the next Canon P.

    Canon P: Are you Practical&Technical-Theoretical&Canonical with a bite of PTC-mood?

    The question is, who you are and how you are, when entering the jukebox of the X-mass Carol.
    System H with components B in assemblies A System
    PTC: Are you a canonical PTC who enjoys pushing and popping? Do you like taking things apart, finding new interests in the parts and pushing down further, without loosing the Assembly code? Are you not satisfied with exploring parts B when taking A Apart? Are you trained in the skill to perceive and store the Assembly code for popping back up to Assembly A and System H?
    TT: TT belongs to gray matter with a deeper-and-deeper Technical-Theoretical interest in pushing down from bodies to cells to bioblasts to molecules to atoms to quarks, without taking note of the canonical assembly code. GeTTing Practically lost, diving uTTerly deep into the grey medium to the limit of drowning. — 'Grau ist alle Theorie, doch grün des Lebens goldner Baum' (Faust I, Goethe).
    PT: A PT uses the computer in the best Practical&Technical way, but does not take it apart. The PT uses an instrument and software, without curiosity about software code, neither writing software nor reading assembly instructions. The PT-state is vitally important to complete an experiment. A PT does not read manuals — many times for good reasons — and does not look for the hair in the soup. If you switch to PTC-mood in the lab, the living cells on the bench will be dead cells before they reach a respiratory state. PTC is out of the lab or at late night in the lab; is out of the box early in the morning, at late nights, during parties, on weekends and holidays; is in the flow state at any time.
    TC: How a TC-nerd gets Practically lost, you find out when proceeding to the next extroductory Canons.

    Canon X: Taking part in an X-mass party

    If you are Practically focused only on your body mass and BMI, without Theoretical interest in count, volume, and mass, you may skip Canon X and continue with Canon B. But don't mix with a biologist, a sport scientist, and a chemist (see Figure X 1).

    Top-down on the way up: the mission in mind

    Figure X 1. Top-down carolical Canon on parts of the X-mass party, introducing the Mitochondrial physiologist BMP, Sport scientist BSP, and Chemist BCH.

  • Figure X 1a. Highest-level System H(10A[6B]): 6 Buddies B are Assembled per table A; 10 such Assemblies are together in the Hut. All B enjoy the special air in the hut and maintain healthy distancing with social contact (for explanation of dashed and full boundary lines see Figure X 2d). The Hut has a cosy temperature during the X-mass party, as felt when entering from the crisp fresh pure air of the mountains. When every Buddy pushed down from the hut to the valley, experimental System H(10A[6B]) disappeared and popped out as H(0) (straight to Panel 1d).

  • Figure X 1b. Highest-level System H(1A[6B]): A party-of-six Assemble in an Airway-car on their way to the X-mass party in the hut. The experiment was to find out, (1) if the body mass of System H(1A[6B]) might crash the Airway-car, and (2) if there was a Ghost in the system. After the party-of-six evacuated the system, the experiment was finished (see Figure X 2c for results), experimental System H(1A[6B]) disappeared and popped out as H(0) (straight to Panel 1d), and the party-of-six joined the party (Panel 1a).

  • Figure X 1c. Highest-level System H(1B): One Buddy with balanced Body mass used the prototype BUMM to measure their individual Body mass and Body mass excess: BME.

  • Figure X 1d. Highest-level System H(0): empty. There is nothing to say about an empty System — it is just a Ghost, and lights are off (see Figure X 2a).

  • An X-mass party pops up in the Highest-level Hut H with a capacity of 60 Bodies B, most of them Biologists and coauthors of BEC 2020.1. One cell biologist just finished a respirometric experiment with cultured cells. Since she wanted to express respiratory rate as O2 flow per cell IO2/ce [amol·s-1·x-1] and O2 flux per cell mass IO2/mce expressed in SI-units [mol·s-1·kg-1], she counted the cells for normalization by cell count, and measured the cell mass for normalization by cell mass. As a cell biologist and Mitochondrial phyiologist MP, she was trained to consider the cell count Nce as the number of unit-entities of entity-type X = ce. And for measurement of cell mass, mX = mce, she needed a pretty large number Nce of cells. That's why pretty MP was in the latest group to join the X-mass party, where they were finally escorted to Table H(A10[6B]).
    Table X 1. No problem on Table H(A10[6B])
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Mitochondrial physiologist MP My name is MP. Hello. Sorry for being late. Three more Biologists B are with me, and it's kind of you that you other two did not mind waiting a bit. kind, mind, bit
    2 Sport scientist SP Servus, my name is SP. Nice to see you again, and I certainly remember your name MP. But your name is not MP. Hello. Never mind, we really did not a bit mind this kind of waiting. kind, mind, bit
    3 Chemist CH CH is my name, good evening. Would you mind me pointing out, that this wating time was a bit too long? Now we cannot walk up to system H, but have to Assemble in an Airway-car of the gondola lift; otherwise the High-level Hut would close by the time we pop up there. kind, mind, bit
    4 Sport scientist SP That's OK. We are all well trained at an average Body mass of 60 kg. So let's make an exception this night and pop up into the Airway-car A as a party-of-six, to pop up at the party in the Hut in time. party
    5 Chemist CH As a Chemist I am not very well trained in physics, but I am sufficiently fit in the basic concepts to clarify, that there is no worry about the type of time we will arrive at the Hut, we will certainly arrive in (1) CEST time, (2) winter time, if we are not further slowed down until summer time, and (3) mechanistic time, if the Airway-car is not that fast to make us worry about relativistic time dilation. But realistically, do we all fit into a single system A? fit, type
    6 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Easily! I just meausured my Body mass, and we are very similar, such that our body mass is only 360 kg. The Airway-car can take a weight of 4000 newton, we are a party-of-six Buddies B NB = 6 x, therefore, our weight is just about 3500 N. Count, Mass
    7 Sport scientist SP Wait - why do biologists talk about simple matters such that they cannot be understood? We talk about Body mass, not weight. Mass
    8 Chemist CH I remember from physics, that weight G [N] is what matters in the Airway-car as the force F of gravitational attraction or the product of our mass and the acceleration due to gravity. It makes only sense to me if I express this in units for fore: N = kg·m·s-2; divide by kg as the unit for mass, and you get the rate of acceleration: N·kg-1 = m·s-2. On our earth this conversion factor between mass and weight is about 9.81 N·kg-1. Mass
    9 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Whereas on the moon the rate of acceleration is merely 1.62 N·kg-1. This is why the terms wet weight and dry weight should be replaced by wet mass or dry mass as agreed during our previous X-mass party, now documented in BEC 2020.1. It is still disturbing, why the protonmotive force pmF is not expressed in newtons but in volts. But all authors agreed that this was beyond the scope of the MitoEAGLE 'States and rates' paper, and there was no more pressure on the debate about the force. There are ongoing discussions, however, if we should use wet or dry mass for our cells. Anyway, my living cells are dead when I measure their mass. Living cells, Force, Pressure
    10 Sport scientist SP Your Body mass is certainly not dead when we measure your BMI. We are all fit, since our BMI is about 20 kg∙m-2. BME
    11 Chemist CH .. and we all fit into system A, let's pop up after all. I cannot wait until our party-of-six joins the party in the Hut. Extroduction
    12 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Due to my cell mass measurements, we are the last Airway-car to arrive. Look here, this is the last empty table, the Hut is full, and the party goes on as a party of 60 with 10 parties of 6. party, table
    13 Chemist CH This makes an X-mass party of 3600 kg body mass. Mass
    14 Sport scientist SP Can you explain the meaning of X? Entity
    15 Chemist CH Every scientist should know this. In the International System of Units, countable elementary entities get the symbol X. Entity, SI
    16 Sport scientist SP Does that mean, that you make an X for YOU, when I measure your Body mass? Entity, Mass
    17 Mitochondrial physiologist MP We should not get personal. Since the majority at our X-mass party are Biologists, we could use the symbol B for our Buddies, such that for you, her, and me we insert generally X = B. Entity
    18 Chemist CH Wait 60 seconds. IUPAC defines the 'amount of substance concentration' as cB = nB·V-1 [mol·m-3]. X = B then means, that we talk about substance B; entities X can be particles, ions, molecules, .. Entity, IUPAC
    19 Sport scientist SP No problem. We are used to wait a minute. .. and a Body X = B .. SI
    20 Mitochondrial physiologist MP .. and all my cells X = ce. Entity
    21 Sport scientist SP Why do you say 'cells' and not 'cell'? Count, Entity
    22 Mitochondrial biologist MP Because I am counting the cells, I don't count a Cell. Count
    23 Sport scientist SP I don't count Bodies, I just put you on my mass balance. Mass
    24 Mitochondrial biologist MP That is your problem, not the problem of an ordinary balance. A simple mass balance measures, it does not count and does not know, if you have a single Body or many bodies in your sample used for mass determination. Take (1) a count NB = 1 x, (2) put the counted sample on the balance, (3) measure the body mass mB [kg], (4) calculate my Body Mass as MUB = mB·NB-1 [kg·x-1]. Then you have the mass per single or Unit-Body. Again, don't take it personal, since I am single (on the balance); but I don't work with single Cells. Your B is a single Body, my ce are many many cells. In my cell mass mce of a few µg there are many cells. Count, single
    25 Sport scientist SP But your Body mass is 60 kg. So your cell mass cannot be just a few 0.000001 kg! my Mass, Body and body
    26 Chemist CH MP does not talk about her cells in her Body MP, as much as you don't talk about your mass balance, which is the balance of all mass going into your system S (input = food and drink and O2) and out of your system S (output = .. let's not talk about it on the table). my mass balance
    27 Sport scientist SP At least we can mention CO2, and list all components of the mass balance in a Table. table
    28 Mitochondrial biologist MP I don't want to be in your table. Of course, I had in mind my cells on my bench in my lab. table
    29 Sport scientist SP Now you put everything on the table. So you push your cells out of your body MP and pop them up to your mass balance on your bench in your lab? table
    30 Mitochondrial biologist MP You don't understand! With my cells in my mind, I am not talking about ce in system B (or in system MP for my own Body), nor about ce from system B (or from system MP for my own Body), but in my mind is a specific neuronal cell type X = ce, cultured in my lab. System, Entity
    31 Chemist CH You better get your brain cells out of your mind. When I talk about my chemicals, it is those moles of substance B that are not in me nor taken from me but prepared by me. Mole
    32 Sport scientist SP When I measure your Body mass, then I am looking at all those kilograms that are in your Body. Mass per Entity
    33 Mitochondrial biologist MP Can my Body mass be in my Body? Is'nt my body mass my Body? Can my Body mass be in my body mass? I thought we agreed that in 'my cell mass' and in 'my Body mass' the recursive "my" presents the problem. my my
    34 Chemist CH That would be too simple. The mass mB of my sample of substance B is not the Body mass of a single Bit of B. Mass of Entities
    35 Mitochondrial biologist MP .. as my cell mass mce is not the mass of a single Cell. Mass of Entities
    36 Sport scientist SP Everybody knows that your Body mass is the mass of your own Body. Why should I think of mB as the mass of many Bodies? Mass per Entity
    37 Mitochondrial biologist MP We had this already on the way up, when we popped up into A. Then mB was the mass of our bodies in the Airway-car, mB = 360 kg. Mass of Entities
    38 Chemist CH Back to the X-mass party, now all A popped up in system H. Now mB = 3600 kg in the Hut. System
    39 Sport scientist SP Now I want to push back to me: If I measure my Body mass mB = 60 kg myself, then my Body mass is in system B and I am system B. This is confusing to me. I should have told you earlier, that I bought a brand new and fancy prototype Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor (BUMM) from the MitoEAGLE Company for Body Mass Analysis (from BMI to BME to BMA). It COST a lot, and the 44-page Manual that came with it was funny but not understandable, although the 666 coauthors must have tried very hard. Just take a glance at BEC 2020.1 and let me know if you agree. A softer approach is taken in the X-mass Carol. That's the one to look at first. But we should not get too technical at an X-mass party, therefore, look at Figure X 2b for my new BUMM. Entity, System
    40 Chemist CH No more pushing an popping: you cannot push entity B into system B, nor pop B into B. Entity, System
    41 Mitochondrial biologist MP Without reading the BUMM Manual, this sounds like my Body mass does not exist, since it does not fit anywhere — neither can it be pushed down nor popped up. Entity
    42 Sport scientist SP This would be bad news for your BMI — there cannot be an Index without Body Mass, it would be the Ghost-Body Mass Index. But where is the problem? BME
    43 Mitochondrial biologist MP There is no problem, but on our table we are talking all the time about it's solution. Look at the other Table (BEC 2020.1, Table 4) BEC 2020.1
    44 Sport scientist SP ??? .. We need more beers for Canon B. Extroduction
    The Mitochondrial physiologist, Sport scientist and Chemist remember that they had joined these parties already six times, and always presented the X-mass carol. MP proclaims, that she brought 60 hard copies of BEC 2020.1, so for the first time they could all give a joint presentation in harmony. MP explains to System H, that an Extroduction is required to be able to fully enjoy the X-mass carol. But if you want to pop up straight, go ahead: »BEC 2020.1«.

    Bottom-up on the way down: mind the mission

    If you pushed down again or stayed in System H, you will be interested to know, what they were chanting in their X-mass carol in the spirit of BEC 2020.1. Not to enter an endless loop at this node of the X-mass story, a pseudo-pop up to the X-mass carol is summarized in Table X 2 and Figure X 2:
    Table X 2. No problem on Table H(A10[6B])
    Term Symbol Units Definition What
    mass of entity-type X = ce mce [kg] The mass of all cultured cells of entity-type ce in the sample that was used to measure the cell mass, or in a sample popped up into the experimental System of the High-resolution respirometer. Entity
    mass of entity-type X = B mB [kg] The mass of all Bodies of entity-type B in the party of NB = 6 x, who entered the Airway-car A. mB = MUB·NB = 60 kg·x-1 · 6 x = 360 kg
    mass per unit-entity of entity-type X = B MUB [kg·x-1] The mass per unit-entity UB of entity-type B. MUB = mB·NB-1 = 60 kg·x-1
    ; UX

    Figure X 2. Bottom-up canonical Carol on parts of the X-mass party

  • Figure X 2a. Highest-level System H(0): empty. The empty System H(0) has unique features. Depending on its bottom-up or top-down evolution, it has not yet gained or already lost it's internal identity: there are no countable objects, but also no H in the empty system. It does not contain any count. It contains emptiness and silence and darkness. It is full of vacuum (upon evacuation of the Hut or the Airway-car). But it would be wrong to say that it does not have any mass, since the mass of a system of vacuum is mH(0) = 0 kg. H(0) is the Ghost and Soul S of the System H(NA[NB]) and System H(NB), with NA = 0 x and NB = 0 x and no medium in H(0). The Ghost has no medium, no internal identity, but it has external extent. Without any count, with mass of zero kg, the empty System H(0) still has the volume of the ghost-experimental System: It has no sound, no count, no matter, no glare, no care — it has pure space, and space does not matter and does not care. When you empty the experimental chamber, you put a Ghost into your instrumental chamber. When you disassemble your instrument and remove the instrumental chamber, you are loosing the Ghost and Soul. The empty chamber on the shelf or in the recycling bin has no Soul. But keeping in mind the X-mass party on the top in the Hut, it is now clear that there is a friendly Ghost in the dark and empty Hut, which pops out when a party pops up, but the poor Soul withdraws when the hut collapses or burns down.

  • Figure X 2b. Highest-level System H(1B): The Buddies B got prepared for the X-mass party: a party-of-six indicated as Assembly A10(6B) in an ensemble of 10 Assemblies of type A(6B) popped up to a mass balance, to qualify for an experiment planned with experimental system Highest-level System H(1A[6B]). But they did not pop up to a party-of-six balance. Instead, one of them used a new Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor (BUMM). A BUMM is a MultiSensor instrument. When a count NB = 1 x pops up to the Highest-level System H(1B), the BUMM (1) has a detector, which converts a signal — indicating that BUMM contains the fully populated System H(1B) — into a count NB = 1 x, and uses this information to block any uncontrolled overpopulation to a System H(NB > 1 x) —, and (2) the BUMM has a sensor for measuring the difference of the mass of the full system minus the mass of the empty system. Then you have a BUMM with an Unit-Mass experimental chamber — unit-entity B is the Sample. System H(1B) contains the air around entity-type B, and since entity-type B is not a gaseous object, this mass of air is ignored in practical evaluations of the mass of System H(1B) — unit-entity B is the balanced experimental System. Therefore, when object BMP popped up on BUMM, the mass of System H(1B) was 60 kg. When object BMP pushed down from the BUMM, she did not cofuse the previously measured mass of System H(1B) — which now is an empty Ghost at mH(0) = 0 kg (see Panel 2a) — with her non-ghostly living Body mass, MUB = mH(1B)·NB = 60 kg·x-1. — This is an unpaid advertisement for BUMM (Open Access, no patent pending). The author declares no conflict of interest.

  • Figure X 2c. Highest-level System H(1A[6B]): A party-of-six NB = 6 x are an Assembly in an Airway-car on their way to the X-mass party in the Hut. While the party-of-six formed a group of loosely distributed particles B in front of the gondola lift, they popped up into System H(1A[6B]) when entering the Air-conditioned Airway-Car. System H(1A(6B)), therefore, is not Assembly A, but contains the single group A, NA = 1 x, in the Airspace of the Airway-car. Nor is the Airway-car identical with System H(1A(6B)), since H(1A(6B)) is the contents without the glass of the windows and the steel of the walls of the container, whereas the Airway-car is the container enclosing System H. The Airway-car is the instrumental system, System H(1A[6B]) is the experimental System. The experiment was to find out, (1) if any Body entering H(0) can find the Ghost, and (2) if the body mass of System H (mB = 360 kg) with a full group A (NB = 6 x) did not exceed the crash-hold of the instrumental system Airway-car. The mass of the instrumental system was much higher than the mass of the experimental System H(1A[6B]), even after A pushes down on exit (near the hut) and System H(1A[6B]) is evacuated to H(0). Once the party-of-six pops up to into the Hut, the experiment H(1A[6B]) is finished, System H(1A[6B]) pops out of existence, whereas the Airway-car remains intact, and the Assembly A10(6B) or party-of-six joins and enjoys the party. Summary of the experiment: (1) The First Law of Ghost-Thermodynamics says, that no Body can ever find the Ghost in the empty system when popping up into the system. (2) The working hypothesis was not stated clearly. (2a) The result may have been negative, since their body mass did not crash the Airway-car. (2b) The result was positive, since their body mass was maintained in a living thermodynamic state as an inclusion criterion for the X-mass party.

  • Figure X 2d. Highest-level System H(10A[6B]): 6 Buddies B are Assembled per table A; 10 such Assemblies are together in the Hut. An Assembly in the Hut is a permeable compartment containing assembled countable entities B as indicated by the dashed boundary lines, bound together in their seats around a table, sharing the same High-quality gaseous medium in system H with the other permeable Assemblies, since air is practically well mixed across Assemblies A in the Hut, whereas the Bodies B do not practically share their internal milieux enclosed by full circles (on the alp there is no sin). A are, but B are not in thermal equilibrium with H. Similarly, the Hut is well heated during the X-mass party, such that the internal High-quality gaseous medium of the Hut is not in thermal equilibrium with the outside world. In the terminology of canonical ensembles, this external part or compartment is called the 'heat bath', which in case of System H is neither hot nor a bath, but it is the crisp fresh pure air of the mountains. System H does not contain a pure sample, but a mixture of A containing structurally positioned elementary-units B. Before A10(6B) popped up, System H(109A[B6]) was not full. When every Buddy pushed down from the hut, System H(10A[6B]) disappeared and popped out as H(0) (straight back to the Ghost story in Panel B 2a).

  • Canon S: The hair in the Soup

    The highlight of any X-mass party is the gala dinner when participants can meet. As always, the Mitochondrial physiologist MP, the Sport scientist SP, and the Chemist CH, who are regular X-mass participants, grab the seats at an empty Table S 1 and are now looking forward to an exquisite X-mass dinner, introduced by a Gallery S. Brussels sprouts.

    Gallery S. Brussels sprouts or 'Where is entity X?'

    Table S 1. Brussels sprouts
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Glad we found a table where we can sit together, which is quite a challenge at our X-mass dinners. I wish we could make advance reservations. reservation
    2 Chemist CH We should do that next time, since I saw several tables with reservations. reservation
    3 Sport scientist SP But these are exclusively for the invited guests and the X-mass Committee. They want participants to mix with new faces and particularly students. mix
    4 Chemist CH We were lucky to find this table. mix
    5 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Look how fast they are in serving the soup already. soup
    6 Chemist CH Which kind of soup is it? I better read the manual — I see, it's Brussels sprouts B. manual
    7 Sport scientist SP I never look into the manual. I prefer the real thing. I see it in the bowl right in front of me. real
    8 Chemist CH But I do not see B in my bowl. There I just see a bowl containing a homogenous mixture. The manual shows even a picture of B. One
    9 Sport scientist SP This picture does not make sense. You can smell B in your bowl, but not in the manual. sense
    10 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Now you pushed down to a different sensory organ, from eye to nose. We can suggest to the manufacturers to add the odour of B into the manual. And those who can't smell a manual can still see B. smell
    11 Sport scientist SP Here comes a clear solution. Look, they serve a dish of roasted Brussels sprouts for us to add to our bowls. I love it. May be I can go ahead and take some B for my soup? solution
    12 Chemist CH I though we have B soup. Why should I add B into my B soup? You can add B plus B. But you cannot add B into B. Anyway, I prefer the homogenous mixture B without the roasted B. X=B
    13 Mitochondrial physiologist MP I like to see the B there on the extra plate, but I hate the smell of B. I will ask the technicians, if they can prepare the broth without any B for me. medium
    14 Chemist CH The you have the mixture at infinite dilution of B solution
    15 Sport scientist SP And you still call it a mixture of B when there is no B? I just call it an empty soup. empty
    16 Chemist CH When there is no B in the bowl, and the bowl is full of broth, then emptiness is not in the bowl but in the soup — it's a clear soup. clear
    17 Mitochondrial physiologist MP This makes everything clear. I was always wondering, what it means, when the manual gives the signal "Calibrate with an empty chamber". The clear medium is the message: Fill the chamber with empty medium. The emptyness is in the medium, which contains no sample B. The manual has to be updated! medium
    16 Chemist CH The manual is perfectly right. If you add broth containing B into your bowl, then you add B into your bowl. If you add broth containing emptiness with respect to B into your bowl, then you add emptiness into your chamber. Now you can calibrate. empty
    18 Mitochondrial physiologist MP You mean, if I add medium without sample into an empty chamber, then I add emptiness into an empty chamber? medium
    19 Sport scientist SP Just enjoy the soup while you empty your bowls, and dont mix up all the different kinds of emptiness. empty
    20 Chemist CH If the manual says "B-soup", then we can only talk about B-emptiness. — The sample is the message. sample
    21 Mitochondrial physiologist MP But I emptied the browth in my bowl from these smelly B. If I now empty my bowl, then I switch from B-emptiness to broth-emptiness. — The medium is the message. medium
    22 Chemist CH This is intuitively clear as usual. But at an X-mass party you cannot use practical language. The broth is an aqueous medium containing more or less dissolved oxygen and more or less B as your sample. As you empty your bowl, and instead of emptying it you add the fullness of O2 in air intoo your chamber. fullness
    23 Mitochondrial physiologist MP O2-emptiness is difficult to achieve, it tends to leak back into any simple chamber. This difficulty is shared with all kinds of emptiness. emptiness
    24 Sport scientist SP Not true for the kind of emptiness in my bank account. empty
    25 Chemist CH Like your account, every experimental Chamber is (1) placed in an environment that is defined by the instrumental chamber (which is the bowl) within the instrumental system set up in the environment of a laboratory, and (2) in contact with or separated from the environment by the System boundary of the experimental System (which is equivalent to the experimental Chamber with the soup or emptiness in the bowl). chamber
    26 Sport scientist SP I understand — since the world is full of fake news and irreproducible results, and my account boundaries are a bit leaky, then my empty account is actually full of Humbug, and fake-emptiness is difficult to achieve. Humbug
    27 Mitochondrial physiologist MP This is a very accurate and canonical description of the real world. canonical
    28 Sport scientist SP Back to the reality of our X-mass dinner. On account of what I see in my bowl, I cannot possibly empty it — there is a hair in the soup! empty
    29 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Even in the best laboratory, manual, or publication, hair-emptiness is difficult to achive. empty
    30 Chemist CH This is entropy — the universal Thermodynamic Law of Humbugy. However hard we try to find clear solutions to publish, we can't win the fight against the entropic pressure to buglish. buglish
    The B-soup was the introduction of the X-mass dinner, continued by the methods section and the main course. After desert, there will be the usual presentation of the X-mass carol. The hair in the soup finally explains, why there were so many versions of the canonical X-mass carol. Everybody wonders, which version will be presented this year.

    Canon F: Take Five while Zen unexplains the identity of X and System H

    Music and dance are vital elements of any X-mass party. This year's musical theme was the quintuple meter. This meter is one of the favourite canonical flows with implicit counts of strong, medium, and weak beats. The quintuple meter is ignored entirely in the SI system of units, where it appears to be forgotten, that the quintuple pattern has its roots not only in antient Greek music but is found in traditional cultures of all continents, emphasizing the International Harmonization at the X-mass party. Everybody understood, when Paul Desmond's Take Five popped up, presented by the Dave Brubeck Quartet (1959). Having been introduced to the new concept of the canonical base quantity 'unit-entity' UX in the previous session, the discussion continued on Table F 1.
    Table F 1. Take One
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Take Five X comes as a reminder, that unit-entities UX are not limited to physical objects but include single countable events. objects and events; UX
    2 Sport scientist SP Sure, we see X not only as countable running Bodies B, but similarly as countable steps or Beats B taken in a run. Beat
    3 Chemist CH Beats B is the rhythmic sound not only from Take Five, from your running steps or your beating heart, but similarly from events that you may not hear, such as molecular collisions, emissions, decays, celestial cycles, parties .. Events
    4 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Why don't you listen to Take Five? They play it almost too loud for me to hear, and parties are countable objects. This year it is the 6th X-mass party. Party
    5 Sport scientist SP And here we are a party-of-five on our table, which is not full since one Buddy is missing, and I can hear your discussion very well. Party
    6 Chemist CH Parties are events. When you count, how many parties you joined per year, then you have a frequency. This frequency — equal to events per unit of time [x·s-1] — is too low for you to hear. Don't tell me, parties are loud objects — parties are events at a low frequency that nobody hears. Events
    7 Mitochondrial physiologist MP We are here at this year's X-mass party, and this is certainly One party. I wonder, if they could play Take One after finishing Take Five. One
    8 Sport scientist SP I never heard Take One. To avoid divergence into a world of arguments on the impossibility to deduce a frequency from a single Beat (Take One is not music in general, and not canonical music in particular), the present X-mass Carol should be restricted to systems containing countable physical objects (X = parties, bodies, organisms, cells, molecules, atoms, particles). Let's go for a dance; you all can Take One from the other table and enjoy a dance together. One
    Our party-of-five A(5/6B) returns to their table after enjoying a full dancing experience with the strong-weak-medium-weak-weak pattern of the quintuple meter. While Take Five was exciting and Take One appeared to be impossible in music but enjoyable in the formation of a dancing Assembly, Table F 2 Take None is full of mysteries and empty of dancing. But first they remember the most peculiar poster presentation ever at an X-mass party. A famous scientist was invited as an honorary guest lecturer. Zen accepted the invitation under the condition to give the oral slots to the non-invited investigators and present a Poster Gallery F.

    The emptiness of System H

    Poster Gallery F. Zen unexplains the vanishing of entity X and emptiness of System H
  • Poster F 1. Highest-level System H(10A[6B]) containing 10 Assemblies A(6B), each is full with 6 Bodies.

  • Poster F 2. Highest-level System H(1A[6B]) containing one full Assembly A(6B). A single party-of-six A(6B) moved to a different Hut, which is smaller and contains only a single table accommodating the single Assembly A(6B).

  • Poster F 3. Highest-level System H(6B) is full with 6B. A(6B) popped up to Highest-level System H(6B) containing 6B. Assembly A unexists in H(6B), but H(6B) is the spirit of A and homoforms into A(6B). The experimental System is now not defined as the Hut, but as the Assembly at one table, or A has taken over the Hut, H = A.

  • Poster F 4. Highest-level System H(1B): A hermit B contemplates in the Zen Hut H(1B), with a single-seat table 1B, about the unexistence of Assembly A (Poster F 3) and the identity of BAH. If A unexists, does BAH unexist? — — Poster discussion: The Sport scientist mentions the magic instrument BUMM and invites Zen to visit her lab for a Body Mass Analysis. Zen would be the singular object B on the Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor BUMM presented at the X-mass party (Figure X 2b). Zen with a smile: "As long as you don't run me on the BUMMER".

  • Poster F 5. Highest-level System H: Then let B pop up ― like H(1A[6B]) popped up to H(6B) ― from H(1B) to H — the Highest-level System H has devoured the object B, but as the dragon Ouroboros, B re-appeared in its purest form B. The alchemists have always used the Ouroboros as the system H, Biting its tail B, in a process of purification of the lowest form of matter to the highest form of pure H = B. As B is swallowed up and vanished, pure B pops up or crops up. — — Poster discussion: The student asks Zen: Master, how do I gain mastership? Zen unanswers: Vanish. — — SP comments: H looks empty compared to H(1B). Zen: On the contrary, H is even fuller of B. B has homoformed to the medium of H. — — CH doubts: Since H = B, then the Highest-level System B is identical to it’s medium B? Zen: The medium is the message of the System. — — MP asks: If H = B is the System fullest of B, which system is the one most empty of B? Zen: Compare System H that is empty of B, with System H(0B) containing no B. Next.

  • Poster F 6. Highest-level System H(0B): No single entity of B. — — Poster discussion: CH: Finally we have an empty System H(0B)? Zen: The System if full of not-B. Even the medium is not B. To "Be" or "not-to-Be". H(1B) contains one B suspended in Medium M. As you approach H(0B) from H(1B), B is infinitesimally diluted, until M contains effectively no B. — — SP: Does that mean, a System cannot be empty? Zen: Next.

  • Poster F 7. Highest-level System H(0): empty. Zen has nothing to say about an empty System — it is just a Ghost. — — Poster discussion: MP: Now this ghostly H(0) has nothing inside, and it does not even have ― in common with all experimental Systems ― a wall. Perhaps it is not a System, it is just nothing? Zen: System N does not exist. It is an elusive concept without any place in the real world. H(0) is not nothing, it is an empty experimental System. It is full of emptiness. You may say that a volume of vacuum has been added as a sample into System H(0), separated from the vacuum of the rest of the real world by the system boundaries. It is pure Euclidian space, filled by the Ghost of nothingness. — — SP: To get to System Nothing, then just take the volume away. Zen: Wow – then the Ghost devoured the System boundary, pushed it into nothingness, and popped out. Now my stomach feels really empty. Let’s chase away this ghost and get some desert. — — End of Poster discussion.

  • Take None

    Table F 2. Take None
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Take Five X is great to dance. When you come to the weak beat, it just does'nt feel to be a full step, it's like X-mass without mass, and that makes it even more exciting. full
    2 Sport scientist SP This is like returning to our table for an Assembly of six B, A(6B). With only five of us, A(6B) is not a full Assembly. The excitement is the open state A(5/6B) — who will fill the empty position? empty
    3 Chemist CH A physics and mathematical guru should join us. But I dont't mind to stay among us five. We could move to this empty table over there, which has five seats. Then Assembly A(5B) would be full, if all of us five will sit down there. full
    4 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Contrary to the impossible Take One to play at a defined frequency, an Assembly of one A(1B) is possible, if one B wants to sit alone on a small table with one seat, or even retreat to a tiny Hut with a single table for one. Hermits always take one. one
    5 Sport scientist SP I thought that hermits take none. Perhaps he would have liked to take one, but she was not in the mood for an Assembly of two. But how can the term Assembly fit to one B? A "B" is a "B", without any Assembly into a "1B". Party
    6 Mitochondrial physiologist MP Your mindset is always with Body mass. The X-mass carol should harmonize our concepts. An entity-type X (or B) is not a single "one X" (or unit-B UB), it is "type X" (or type B), whereas "1X" (1B) is written in canonical form as something special, like a hermit, UB, with the singular count NB = 1 x. An Assembly A(NB) is not prevented from being a hermit-type Assembly A(1B) for NB = 1 x. When you talk 'Body mass', you should think of Hermit-Body mass or Unit-Body mass, like on your famous Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor BUMM. With Hermit substituting for Uni, it would sound rather empty: BHMM — not good for the business. From UB to user experience UX
    7 Mitochondrial physiologist MP ## One
    8 Sport scientist SP ## One
    Take five Bits and add them into Assembly A as defined above. Then we have a system that is not full. The property ‘not full’ is an option for all systems except for system B. System B loses its identity if entity B is removed from the system. The actual presence of 1 x UB in the experimental system is required to define it as system B. System B cannot be empty, otherwise an existence of a unit UB would be postulated of entity type Ø, but Ø is not a countable elementary entity, thus an empty System B cannot exist in the world of counts. In the hierarchical sequence from BAH to BA to B, B is a singular case, since empty systems A and H do exist. Accepting B as a singular case at the lower end of the hierarchical sequence, it is of interest to ask about the other end defined by the Highest-level system H.

    Canon B: To drink or not to drink Beer

    Drinking modes and drinking moods

    • You drink a bottle — Practical PT-mode.
    • You drink out of a bottle — Technical PT-mode.
    • You drink the contents of a bottle out of a bottle — Technical-Theoretical PT-mode.
    • You drink a count NB = 1 x of non-countable entity-type Beer contained in a full emptyable Highest-level System H supported by an instrumental system R (Refillable glass bottle) — simplest possible form in Theoretical-Canonical TC-mood.

    Canonical Manual B with step-by-step instructions

  • Figure B 1a. Highest-level System H(1A[6B]): Compare Figure X 2c. System H is the Hut containing 1 Assembly A (A=6-pack) which is full with 6 Bottles (B=Botttle). There may be zero Buddies in the Hut, H is full if there is 1 A. There may be 60 Buddies in the Hut, H is empty, if there is no 6-pack.

  • Figure B 1b. The 6-pack is full of Bottles, if there are 6 Bottles of beer.

  • Figure B 1c. The 6-pack is full of Bottles, even if the Bottles are empty.

    1. Do you want to drink a beer? If Yes, next.
    2. Do you want to drink a number of Beers that may exceed NB = 1 x ? If Yes, next.
    3. If N > 6 x, pop up at the next brewery. If N ≤ 6 x, next.
    4. Get hold of a 6-pack Holder H, that contains an Assembly A of a number N of 6 entities B. If unclear, next.
    5. Get hold of a 6-pack Holder H(1A[6B]), that contains a number NA = 1 x of Assemblies A(6B) containing a number NB = 6 x of entities B. If clear, next.
    6. Push down a number NB = 1 x of entity-type B to render the previously full System Holder H(1A[6B]) partially filled or partially emtpy as Holder H(1A[56B]). Next.
    7. The Highest-level System is now H(1B), which is closed. Open.
    8. Experimental System H(1B) is supported by the instrumental system R (Refillable glass bottle). Use R as an instrument to empty its contents H(1B) either into a beer glass (indirect operation procedure IOP), or into your mouth (standard operation procedure SOP). If Yes, next.
    9. To keep Canonical Manual B free of any complications, follow the SOP.
    10. Push down and follow instructions 'Open system R', and pop up to Canonical Manual B with an open System H(1B) in your hand. This is a hands-on experimental demo.
    11. Observe, what is in your hand, open system R or open System H(1B)? If No, next.
    12. The answer 'No' was correct, since opening an open bottle is a No-go. If Yes, next.
    13. Observe, what is in your hand: the open system R or the open System H(1B)? If Yes, next.
    14. Your hand holds on to the glass of system R, which separates System H(1B) from your hand. The answer 'Yes' was correct, since you hold both, the container and its contents in your hand. What is the contents? If Yes, next.
    15. R contains System H(1B). System H(1B) does not contain the glass wall of chamber R, the contents does not contain the container. System H(1B) contains the contents of System H(1B), but System H(1B) is more than the 0.5 L B. System H(1B) has a spacial property that is independent of B but its form and magnitude depend entirely on R. This partial B-independent quantity of H(1B) is the volume VH that is smaller than the volume VB of sample B in System H(1B). In addition to VB, the System contains a small volume VG of a gas space that is rich in CO2. Observe the specification on the label of R: e 0.5 L. The e certifies, that the sample type B contained in R is typically 0.5 L but minimally 0.485 L. Not to get disappointed later, therefore, assume VB = 0.485 L. Nothing is explained about the non-sample volume of the gas phase. Never mind. If yes, next.
    16. Since the System is open, the next task is to initiate an external flow, Ie,VB < 0 L·s-1 of sample B to the system's environment. From your perspective, this external flow would be considered as a positive input. For the bottle, it is negative. If negative, next.
    17. The volume balance of aqueous B is constructed.
    18. State 1: VB,1 = 0.5·0.97 = 0.485 L; H(1B) is 97 % full relative to reference volume of 0.5 L, in compliance with e 0.5 L.
    19. State 0: VB,0 = 0.5·0.02 = 0.01 L; 2 % of the referenbce volume of 0.5 L remain unconsumed in H(1B) due to incomplete sampling.
    20. Total dynamics as seen by bottle from State 1 to State 0: ΔVB = VB,0 - VB,1 = -0.475 L
    21. Inernal transformation dynamics due to evaporation: ΔintVvap,B = 0.5·-0.01 = -0.005 L; B(aq) → B(g)
    22. External transfer dynamics due to drinking: ΔextVd,B = ΔVB - Vi,B = -0.475 + 0.005 = -0.47 L; the volume of B consumed by drinking from System H(1B), amounting to only 94 % recovery from the reference volume of 0.5 L.
    This Canonical Manual BB is really missing in the international and national certificate regulations, leaving the consumer alone and desparate in the task.
    • Resolution for PT-mode: Drink and don't think.
    • Suspended state in TC-mood: Luckily, the bottle is still closed. The Canonical Manual BB is great, but incomplete. Volumes are a function of temperature. The 6-pack is still in the fridge. How to keep temprature constant following the SOP? We have to use a Peltier-temperature regulated beer bottle. Furthermore, the Manual has to be extended by two points:
    23. Keep temperature constant by drinking fast.
    24. Re-read the Manual for potential corrections and possible extensions.
    • Resolution for TC-mood: To drink or not to drink.

    Canon L: Sorry I miss your Lecture

    A Teacher and Student talk on skype the day after the X-mass party. They are looking forward to the next one and celebrate a great success. But the Student missed the lecture (Table L 1).
    Table L 1. What did the Student miss in the lecture?
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Teacher T Hello, how are you? Did you enjoy last night's party? I had to leave early to prepare for this morning's lecture. You must have stayed late, since I did not see you in the audience. wake up
    2 Student S I am really sorry that I missed your lecture, which I always try to attend. But I am sure, you have a video recording, such that I can catch up. Last night you missed the X-mass carol. It was a bit long, that's why I was late this morning. But it was right on line of the topic of the manuscript that I should update according to the X-mass carol. Some sections of that Canon were quite difficult to understand. Perhaps they should have been more canonical, but then I would have missen even our skype call this afternoon. Why did you call me? catch up
    3 Teacher T Actually to tell you great news. The manuscript you referred to was submitted and accepted today for publication in this high-impact journal. Congratulations, you are one of the coauthors. great
    4 Student S Well, that is really great news for my career and your next grant proposal. But the X-mass carol said, some terms that we used were really misleading. question
    5 Teacher T Sure I know. I am one of the 666 coauthors. BEC 2020.1
    6 Student S I am so glad to hear this. Then you have certainly made these updates already before submission. And following all this great Open Science stuff, sure you have posted it as a preprint, such that the entire X-mass party can take a look at it and send you their comments. feedback
    7 Teacher T I prefer the X-mass party to see our title in the high-impact journal and cite our paper, not sending comments. high-impact
    8 Student S Well, since you updated the manuscript, the X-mass party does not have to send comments, except for congratulations. feedback
    9 Teacher T Sure, some have sent me already their congratulations about the high-impact journal, never mind the contents. I have not updated the contents. high-impact
    10 Student S You have not what? what?
    11 Teacher T We need acceptance by the reviewers. I had to stick to practical language that everybody understands. Talking about mitochondrial residual oxygen consumption, mt-Rox, is too theoretical-canonical. Just leave it as non-mitochondrial respiration, which everybody uses for correction in the general context of cell respiration .. general
    12 Student S You mean, the term is used for correction? So why did you not correct the term? the term
    13 Teacher T .. such that practically everybody understands, particularly our reviewers. don't interrupt
    14 Student S But recently you published in a high-impact journal on mitochondrial monoamine oxidases. As you explained in a recent lecture — which I did not miss — this mitochondrial enzyme may make a significant contribution to residual oxygen consumption Rox. high impact
    15 Teacher T This was in a different high-impact journal with little impact on my last lecture. Don't mix these up. Today I was teaching about basal cell respiration corrected for non-mitochondrial respiration. At that time, the X-mass carol was in your ears, not in my and my student's minds. More important is the correction of maximal rate for basal respiration for evaluation of spare capacity. You should not have missed this. miss
    16 Student S I should not have mixed this? Subtracting ROUTINE-respiration from ET-capacity gives an estimate of the apparent ET-excess capacity. higher impact
    17 Teacher T This canonical terminology is not even covered in the X-mass carol you heard last night. It is in preparation for next year's version, as discussed in many COSTly events already. COST
    18 Student S Why then did you not teach those terms, symbols, and units? MitoEAGLE
    19 Teacher T Because I have to finish my lecture in time and must not confuse my students. practical
    20 Student S But sure, the reviewers would understand. high impact
    21 Teacher T The reviewers of high-impact journals are the best. They know what everybody knows. They know that what we publish is not correct but readable. What use is it to be correct but unreadable? That does not generate high-impact. practical
    22 Student S Teacher, does that mean, that you teach things that everybody knows already, or you teach these wrong things, of which everybody knows that they are wrong? Teacher, why do you teach? everybody knows
    23 Teacher T
    24 Student S Glad I did'nt miss the X-mass carol. BEC 2020.1

    Figure H 1. Thomas Rowlandson Humbugging, or raising the Devil (1800), illustrating Charles Dickens and L. Frank Baum’s Bah! Humbug! - [ Source

    Canon W: What a BUMMER

    Some time ago first preliminary results have been reported on applications of a prototype Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor (BUMM) at a memorable X-mass party. This sparked an enormous interest in the field of Body Mass Analysis (BMA - BME - BMI), since many key opinion leaders replaced their simple body mass balances with the new and fancy BUMM. The real breakthrough, however, came with the combination of the BUMM and the classical Ergometric Respirometer (ER) for measurement of basal metabolic rate and maximum O2 consumption. This revolutionary equipment ― well known now as the BUMMER ― is available with two software versions.
    The expensive type PRAC measures the extracorporeal oxygen consumption rate (ECOC) and is very simple (to use), whereas the more sophisticated version CANO measures normal oxygen flux, called highly normalized respiratory rate (HNRR). CANO is rather complex, such that introductory and advanced workshops are offered on canonical terminology. The best approach is to use both types for the BUMMER.
    That is what the Principle Investigator and the Practical Investigator did. To avoid terminological conflict between the self-evident PI and pI acronyms, the pI is called Student Investigator SI in the present context. The PI is a classical cell biologist. The SI received a prestigious International and Canonical Harmonization Scholarship, to extend her training as a sport scientist to mitochondrial physiology. Now PI and SI prepare their presentation for the next X-mass party and are eager to submit some manuscripts first (Table W 1).
    Table W 1. The separate worlds of PRAC and CANO
    # Speaker Symbol Talk Push down
    1 Student SI Can you give me some advice, how I should start writing the manuscript. I just finished the last experiment with the BUMMER. Both software versions worked really fine. The PRAC is simple, but the CANO allows you to play and is lots of fun. fun
    2 PI PI To keep it simple, why don’t you prepare two separate manuscripts? MS#1 for the audience familiar with PRAC; MS#2 for the CANO community. simple
    3 Student SI These will be ready soon for your approval. Actually, I was thinking of a third MS, to compare the two. manuscript MS
    4 PI PI But how would you do that? The PRAC and CANO terminologies are continents apart. It would be only confusing to mix them up. simple
    5 Student SI This is really a big problem. But I just received this great International and Canonical Harmonization Scholarship. At the last X-mass party they presented an X-mass carol on canonical harmonization. BEC 2020.1
    6 PI PI I heard about it, but I had to leave early to prepare my grant proposal for a second BUMMER. BUMMER
    7 Student SI Should we give it a try? Then MS#3 could connect these different worlds in canonical harmony. Anyway, it is the same raw data. The PRAC and CANO versions just use two different terminologies. MS#3
    8 PI PI Don’t forget the units. Once you are used to data expressed as ECOC with units [pmol/min] all is very simple. But you loose half the audience, when talking about normal respiratory rate or HNRR. BUMMER
    9 Student SI HNRR means Highly Normalized Respiratory Rate. HNRR
    10 PI PI Sounds all normal to me. Since the BUMMER has a Balanced Uni-Mass Monitor Module (BUMMM), it gives you both, (1) a measurement of Body Mass, and (2) a count of Body Number. The Body Counter makes the BUMMER so expensive. BUMMM
    11 Student SI That’s why I was so excited to use it. HNRR
    12 PI PI The PRAC software then makes the BUMMER even more expensive. But it’s really posh. You just push and plug it in, and it resolves all these complications automatically. You get the beautifully simple ECOC [pmol/min] ― basta. ECOC
    13 Student SI We can convert to [pmol∙s-1]. second and first
    14 PI PI Why should I? ECOC
    13 Student SI SI, respected PI. It’s the SI units. At X-mass they all want to get SI units. They love it. We can list the data in two Tables for comparison. That's what they call hetero-canonical harmonization. SI
    14 PI PI I agree with your simple solution. But then leave it there. Any further complications with normalization would just upset the reviewers. unit
    15 Student SI But Body Mass Index is an accepted concept. The normal audience is also familiar with VO2max normalized for Body Mass. There you don’t even have to convert to seconds. VO2max is expressed per minute. I am quite fit. I have 60. VO2max
    16 PI PI 60 what? 60 seconds per minute? 60
    17 Student SI No, my VO2max/M is 60 mL O2∙min-1∙kg-1. It is the respiratory rate normalized for Body Mass. VO2max
    18 PI PI BAH! You talk about SI units and use not only minutes but even mL O2? 60
    19 Student SI That is different. Sport scientists would never change. If you change, then 60 looses all the meaning. Although our cells consume dissolved O2, we are all terrestrial Bodies breathing air as a gas. The SI tolerates hesitatingly the liter as a practical unit for volume [1000 L = 1 m3]. Respiration per Body, IO2/X, is further normalized for Body Mass, JO2/M. VO2max
    20 PI PI Why do they call their annual conference an X-mass party? I understand the party. I can also understand the mass, although this makes the topic very lean. But why the X? entity
    21 Student SI This very X is the great thing. They had a long canonical discussion about the term X. The entity X brings us all together. As Cell biologist, you subsitute for X = ce. Sport scientists and all the medical people deal with Bodies, X = B. As an aspirating Mitochondrial physiologist I am just learning more about the Bioblasts, then X = B. AnyBody can join the party X = B (Buddy). Later in the party again X = B (Beer). It is really multidisciplinary with a universal scope. entity
    22 PI PI Then you think of another MS to compare pmol and mL O2? MS
    23 Student SI This would be great for my PhD-thesis. But it is more complicated. The volume VO2 that we breathe has nothing to do with the VO2 in the VO2max. There, volume is expressed at STPD (standard temperature and pessure dry), otherwise the conversion from volume to amount of O2 would depend on the actual experimental conditions. The conversion constant of 0.7443 (µmol O2∙s-1)/(mL O2∙min­-1) is listed in Table 6 (BEC 2020.1), but the X-mass carol does not even give a separate Stave to this canonical topic. entity
    24 PI PI Let’s stick to three MS for now. Bridging the gap between the minute-audience and second-community is a sufficiently challenging task. MS
    25 Student SI SI does not accept the minute. Although this is pushed as a minute little argument, the second community will claim to pop up first. 2nd
    26 PI PI You students behave like kids, always playing. MS
    27 Student SI Playing is the key to discovery. 2nd
    28 PI PI So what did you discover? MS
    29 Student SI It’s all about the BUMMER. I wish you cell biologists would have a Cell-BUMMER. Yet you still use old-fashioned separate cell counters, which may not even give comparable results and thus render different studies irreproducible. A cell counter would be integrated into a Cell-BUMMER. As soon as the BUMM counts ‘one Body’, it stops further Bodies from entering and starts with the measurement of Body Mass, and the BUMMER completes the Erogmetric Respiratory test. 2nd
    30 PI PI Not even a muti-well respirometer can measure respiration of a single cell. Anyway, the PRAC has solved numerous problems by skipping the cell number. It must have taken long to solve this software problem, hence we accept that it is very expensive. MS
    31 Student SI My discovery is not instrumental but theoretical. Just thinking of X. 2nd
    32 PI PI The party comes later. MS
    33 Student SI After we are done with the Minute-Second MS (finally I understand the meaning of the symbol MS; it should be added to the canonical Table 8 on terms, symbols, and units in BEC 2020.1), we proceed with harmonizing the PRAC and CANO software. The BUMMER allows the complex CANO to normalize and gives flux per Mass, JO2/M [pmol∙s-1∙mg-1] and flow per Number of X, IO2/X [pmol∙s-1∙x-1]. In contrast, the BUMMER allows the fancy PRAC software to simplizise and gives the slick IO2 [pmol∙s-1], if we ask for an extended PRAC-SI version. 2nd
    34 PI PI That is a great business model for the BUMMER, selling it with additional SI-software versions. I will include this in my grant proposal. MS
    35 Student SI The two expressions IO2 and IO2/X generated by PRAC and CANO created the two parallel worlds of scientists who never meet. To speed up the progression to infinity where even parallels meet, we apply the X-mass carol for canonical harmonization. 2nd
    36 PI PI How will the BUMMER work at infinity? MS
    37 Student SI Not how but why: because it is the Balanced Uni-Mass MultiSensor Ergometric Respirometer. The Body-Count is restricted to NB = 1 x. The Cell-Count is restricted to Nce = 1 x. The X-Count is restricted to NX = 1 x. This makes the PRAC and CANO worlds numerically equal. 2nd
    38 PI PI Can you give an example? Say 60. MS
    39 Student SI Here is the elegant solution with 60, but it works for any positive integer number, and it works for all types of X: For any NX = 1 x, IO2/X = IO2NX-1. Then:
    • PRAC: IO2 = 60 [pmol∙s-1]
    • CANO: IO2/X = 60 [pmol∙s-1∙x-1]

    They are totally equal! When I saw this last night with closed eyes, I woke up and knew that this was a great discovery.

    40 PI PI But still the PRAC and CANO worlds are separated by the magic unit [x]. You told me that this is the canonical counting-unit for the count NX [x], compared to the SI unit mole for amount nX [mol]. MS
    41 Student SI Exactly! The 'counting-unit' [x] and the 'mole' [mol] are the comparable units for the quantities count and amount. These are isomorphic quantities in canonical terminology, related by a fixed 'stoichiometry', which is the universal Avogadro constant. This is at the heart of the redefinition of the SI units as of May 2019, marking one of the largest overhauls in history of scientific units. unit
    42 PI PI Can you pop up back to our practical problem? MS
    43 Student SI I am right there, since here comes the SI like a magician, using a great trick referred to as Humbugging in the historical terminology of the original Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. The SI has declared in its publication of 2019-May-20, celebrating the centennial of IUPAC, that the counting-unit for the count — whoop — does not exist. Even more magically, they cast a spell over the unit [x] and transformed the poor unit into a number: x is devoured by the number 1, which finally is made to vanish altogether ― it is popped out. 2nd
    44 PI PI Problem solved or dissolved? MS
    45 Student SI An infinite solution — from PRACTICAL to Technical-Theoretical to CANONICAL. We just pushed into PTC-mood .. PTC
    46 PI PI Pop up, please. Back to SI-mode. SI
    47 Student SI For your example of 60:
    • PRAC SI-module: IO2 = 60 [pmol∙s-1]
    • CANO SI-module: IO2/X = 60 [pmol∙s-1]

    Now they are really the same ― BINGO!

    48 PI PI But this cannot be! Why did I pay for two different versions, PRAC and CANO, if they are the same? MS
    49 Student SI I am so sorry. We could have spent this money better at an X-mass party and invite them all for many Beers per Body, NB/B » 1 x∙x-1. This is a nondimensional ratio, such that canonical and SI are in complete harmony, NBeer/Buddy » 1. Beer
    50 PI PI This cannot be! If they are the same, we cannot publish three MS. MS
    51 SI & PI PI & SI What a BUMMER! How can CANONICAL ever be PRACTICAL? PTC

    Supplement Canon O: Assembly of canonical X-mass carols on the Oroboros Ecosystem

    Push down to »Canonical Carol Canon O«

    XX-mass carols


    Scientists have to be skeptical and build barriers against nonsense, hoax, and fraud (Figure H 1). This essential attitude of science creates a backlash not only against irreproducibility, fiction and religion, but in anterograde mode makes sceptical against innovations and hypotheses that counter the scientific, social, and political mainstream.
    Scientists are trained to accept norms and operate under the laws of nature, such that it is in many scientist’s nature to follow the establishment, turn against revolution and ― in retrograde mode ― fight against innovation. This is necessary not only to find the bugs (Humbug) in the system, but is essential to get funded by governmental agencies. Then scientists can elaborate and publish those innovations that are not rejected by the scientific establishment. Nevertheless, the majority of scientific publications are irreproducible waste [1], mainly as a result of the scientific system geared towards quantity rather than quality, to buglish what is accepted rather than publish what is new. How can we then find out, which type of science is pseudo-religious gibberish, lacking the rigor of canonical form, in contrast to the type of science which is science (Figure H 2)?
    In canonical form every term, symbol, and object has a consistent representation as a result of disambiguation. Disambiguation in the first place relies on the use of practically evolved language to define a term that is part of practically evolved language ― then the dragon bites its tail in a self-referential loop of romantic communication in harmony, that is despised of in classical linear logic. Alternatively, practically evolved language is used to define a newly diverted (or more dramatic: a newly invented) term ― then the dragon’s mouthful of gibberish does not even find its tail on the classical linear trajectory, when communication is what happens when two parallels meet at infinity. Successful disambiguation uses a diversity of media ― counting, measuring, text, symbols, equations, figures, colour, sound, videos, repeated experiments ― to obtain optimum redundancy and complementarity. The present attempt at disambiguation of fundamental terms ― from system, sample, object, entity, count, volume, body mass, to flow and flux ― taps into the richness and limitations of evolved common language, when an experimental biologist sees theoretical physical chemistry through the looking glass (Figure H 3).
    The X-mass Carol is composed for a Technical-Theoretical audience with a Practical mindset and a Canonical curiosity that accepts recurrent PTC-loops. The resistance against trusting a concept increases in a PTC-system as an exponential function of the theoretical scope. A PTC-loop is a cognitive Dynamic Open Canonical Ensemble (cognitive DOCE). If you are strictly a Practical-Technical PT with little Theoretical clout ― stop here and return to your experimental PT-ensemble. If you are a strictly Theoretical-Canonical TC-nerd, you have arrived here by mistake ignoring the title and prelude ― skip the rest. If you are happy with your Technical-Theoretical skills ― play more of the same gray T-thriller, not wasting T-time here. So much for the instructions to a non-PTC audience to stack away from the following BAH! Humbug!
    Continuing, you are a Brave PTC-player, so I wish you pop up from the Audience to the Highest-level Stage ― join this PTC-canonical coral giving it your voice: welcome in the cognitive DOCE (quod erat demonstrandum: DOCE latin imperative means ‘you should Demonstrate’). PTC sets the stage. The Stage is the Highest-level System H, to which the Brave in the Audience look up. You are B in A and pop up to Stage H in a PTC-loop. Up here, the canonical ensemble DOCE strives for a yet higher-level Stage as the Highest-level System, for All to pop up on Stage together, from B in A up to H. How many Staves of the coralical canon DO you open the DOCE, until you shout BAH! Humbug! Strive to Stave one.

    Stave I: Canonical reviewer's comments on: Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2019) The International System of Units (SI) 9th ed.

    » Bureau International des Poids et Mesures 2019 The International System of Units (SI)

    Stave II: In a nutshell — NUCE

    NUCE - a CASE from the beginning

    In CASE we are interested in exploring something, it all starts with definitions. We define the object or event X of the investigation.
    1. E: Entity X is out there. If it is only in your imagination, file it in 'File-X'.
    2. S: For investigation, take a defined Sample from all entities of type X existing in the real world, to study it more or less isolated from the rest of the world. Special care has to be taken, to isolate the sample of X completely from the imagined world. This is tough. The gold standard is the pure sample — without any contaminations from the imagined and real worlds. Sample separation is at the beginning of an experiment. That is why the real world is curious as to when Dr. Zen will start her experiment in the laboratory, while she is still concerned with purification from the imagined world (the alchemists called this putrification). If sample separation fails, it is the end (that is one of the hidden themes of the Ouroboros of alchemy). Think of isolated mitochondria, of a cristallized enzyme, of pure gold (Today there is a predominant interpretation, that alchemists had aimed at the transformation of low-value metals into gold; Dr. CG Jung explains: do not confuse the search for purity and reproducibility with the addiction to gold or obsession by impact factors. Dr. S Freud disagrees and adds some more obsessions). Sample perparation was at the beginning of the alchemist's experiment in the search for the pure substance, and most of them failed (this has not changed, as evidenced by the continuing reproducibility crisis). So did Newton's experiments on alchemy in his investigations of the chemical affinities of metals. Yet, these failures gave the inspirations for his biggest success, when changing X and turning from affinities of chemistry to the gravitational force of physics (Dobbs 1975 Cambridge Univ Press, White 1997 Fourth Estate).
    3. A: All this sampling requires a lot of Assembling, let it be celestial bodies, legal bodies, biological bodies, body parts, particles for static entities X call objects, or something that happens dynamically over time in association with some bodies to get dynamic X called events. After assembling starts quantification.
    4. C: Counting X-objects or X-events appears to be the simplest type of quantification, but it has its practical limits. First, counting needs quantization of objects or events in a sample of X. It was a long way from the 'elements' of Euclid of Alexandria and the atoms of Greek philosophers to the Boltzmann constant and Avogadro constant that deal with quantized elementary entities, which experienced their latest ground-breaking definitions on Unit-day in 2019-05-20. What is the meaning of counting quantized elementary entities of type X?
    Counting mitochondrial is hard, as all know with an interest in electron microscopy and stereology. Counting mitochondrial is controversial, as all know with an interest in fission and fusion. Mitochondria are entities X, but quantization of mitochondria is a problem. Quantification is another issue. Even harder problems of counting are encountered with much simpler objects of type X. While cell counters may give more or less reliable cell counts, how do we count the object or entity X = water in a sample of crystalline or liquid pure water?
    This is clearly a case of the Ouroboros: spinning the CASE backwards by way of ESAC brings us back to the beginning — entity X. However many File-X units we want to spin around, we have to pop out of the CASE loop, starting with entity X in a nutshell: NUCE.

    NUCE - an advanced CASE in a nutshell

    Quantification of (1E) entity X as (2C) a count needs quantization into (3U) units to obtain a quantity as a (4N) number of units. This was brief, fitting into a nutshell. Perhaps we need to break the shell for finding the meaning in the message NUCE.
    The concept of number is elusive in the theoretical world of philosophy and even in the technical world of systems of units, where the SI is the most formalized of all systems in the world. The International System of Units (SI) deals with units, giving the quantity 'count' a unitwith the number 1 expressed in the term 'unit' (uno, one). So what's the problem with NUCE? The problem is exactly in the unit with the numeral 1 expressed in the term "unit".
    1. NU: A number N is not a unit U or u.
    2. CN: A count NX is not a number N.
    3. EU: An elementary entity X (Euclid) is not a unit (SI).
    4. NE: A number N is not an entity X.
    5. CE: A count NX is not an entity X, even for a single elementary entity.
    6. CU: A count NX is not a unit-entity UX.

    NUCE - all CASEs in links

    N »Number
    U »Unit
    C »Count
    E »Entity

    Stave III: Count on SI

    Relationships between isomorphic quantities of count

    Isomorphic quantities of count N, amount n, and charge Q, with motive units [MU] for particle, chemical and electrical formats, and ‘stoichiometric’ relationships based on fundamental constants

    SI base quantities and units: adding count, unit-entity, and charge for comparison of count-linked isomorphic quantities

    "The value of a quantity is generally expressed as the product of a number and a unit. The unit is simply a particular example of the quantity concerned which is used as a reference, and the number is the ratio of the value of the quantity to the unit" (SI 2019: Defining the unit of a quantity, p. 127).
    Quantity Symbol for quantity Q Symbol for dimension Name of SI unit Symbol for SI unit uQ [*]
    length l L meter m
    mass m M kilogram kg
    time t T second s
    electric current I I ampere A
    thermodynamic temperature T Θ kelvin K
    amount of substance *,§ nX = NX·NA-1 N mole mol
    count *,$ NX X counting-unit x
    unit-entity *,$ UX U counting-unit x
    charge *,€ QX = NX·zX·e I·T coulomb C = A·s
    luminous intensity Iv J candela cd
    [*] »SI base units, except for the canonical 'counting-unit' [x]. The following footnotes are canonical comments.
    * For the quantities n, N, U, and Q, the entity-type X of the unit-entity U has to be specified in the text and indicated by a subscript: nO2; Nce; QX.
    § Amount nX is an elementary quantity, converting the counting-unit [x] into moles [mol] using the Avogadro constant, NA.
    $ Count NX equals the number of unit-entities UX. In the SI, the quantity 'count' is explicitly considered as an exception: "Each of the seven base quantities used in the SI is regarded as having its own dimension. .. All other quantities, with the exception of counts, are derived quantities" (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures 2019 The International System of Units (SI)). A unit-entity UX is not a count (UX is not a number of UX). NX has the dimension X of a count and UX has the dimension U of a unit-entity, and both quantities have the same elementary 'counting-unit' [x].
    Charge is a derived SI quantity. Charge is an elementary quantity, converting the counting-unit [x] into coulombs [C] using the elementary charge, e, or converting moles [mol] into coulombs [C] using the Faraday constant, F. zX is the charge number of entity X, which is a constant for any defined entity X. QX = nX·zX·F
    A canonical question: If we deal with a count of one entity B, then NB = 1 x (entity B). If B carries the message ‘one single B’, then NB = 1 x = B. Does the count devour the entity? Is B a count or an entity? Or is B a count if NB = 1 x, but an entity-type if NB > 1 x?


    Click to expand or collaps
    Bioblast links: SI base units - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
    Entity, count, and number, and SI base quantities / SI base units
    Quantity name Symbol Unit name Symbol Comment
    unit-entity UX counting-unit [x] UX, UB; [x] not in SI
    count NX counting-unit [x] NX, NB; [x] not in SI
    number N - dimensionless = NX·UX-1
    amount of substance nB mole [mol] nX, nB
    electric current I ampere [A] A = C·s-1
    time t second [s]
    length l meter [m] SI: metre
    mass m kilogram [kg]
    thermodynamic temperature T kelvin [K]
    luminous intensity IV candela [cd]
    Fundamental relationships
    » Avogadro constant
    » Boltzmann constant
    » elementary charge
    » Faraday constant
    » gas constant
    SI and related concepts
    » International System of Units
    » International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC
    » entity
    » quantity
    » dimension
    » format
    » motive unit

    Concentration and density

    Concentration and density in different formats

    Concentration is an extensive quantity divided by volume V, or a count divided by volume V. The elementary entities X (or B) or the sample type s have to be specified in the text or indicated by a subscript or in parentheses. Examples: cell-count concentration Cce; count concentration of protons CH+; molar concentration of protons cH+. Density is not only 'mass density ρ, but is used for many extensive quantities divided by volume or area.
    Concentration Symbol Definition Unit Note
    Count concentration CX = NX·V-1 [x·L-1] The IUPAC term 'number concentration' should be replaced by 'count concentration' (or 'number of entities concentration').
    Amount concentration cB = nB·V-1 [mol·L-1] Amount concentration is a counting concentration, converting the counting-unit [x] into moles [mol] using the Avogadro constant.
    Charge density ρe = QX·V-1 [C·L-1] Charge density in electricity is charge per volume. Charge density is a counting concentration, converting the counting-unit [x] into coulombs C using the elementary charge, or converting moles [mol] into coulombs [C] using the Faraday constant.
    Mass density of s ρs = ms·V-1 [kg·L-1] Mass density ρs is mass of sample s per volume V of the mixture.
    Mass density of S ρS = mS·VS-1 [kg·L-1] Mass density ρS is mass of the pure sample S per volume VS of the pure sample; ρS is the reciprocal of specific volume.
    Volume density ΦX = VX·V-1 [L·L-1] Volume density is equivalent to the volume fraction.

    Density of the pure sample

    Concentration Symbol Definition Unit Note
    Count concentration CX = NX·V-1 [x·L-1] The IUPAC term 'number concentration' should be replaced by 'count concentration' (or 'number of entities concentration').
    Amount concentration cB = nB·V-1 [mol·L-1] Amount concentration is a counting concentration, converting the counting-unit [x] into moles [mol] using the Avogadro constant.
    Charge density ρe = QX·V-1 [C·L-1] Charge density in electricity is charge per volume. Charge density is a counting concentration, converting the counting-unit [x] into coulombs C using the elementary charge, or converting moles [mol] into coulombs [C] using the Faraday constant.
    Mass density of s ρs = ms·V-1 [kg·L-1] Mass density ρs is mass of sample s per volume V of the mixture.
    Mass density of S ρS = mS·VS-1 [kg·L-1] Mass density ρS is mass of the pure sample S per volume VS of the pure sample; ρS is the reciprocal of specific volume.
    Volume density ΦX = VX·V-1 [L·L-1] Volume density is equivalent to the volume fraction.


    Click to expand or collaps
    Bioblast links: Concentration and pressure - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>

    Stave IIII: The Bit Assembled in the Highest-level system

    Work in progress


    Bioblast linkReferenceYear
    Boltzmann L (1877) Über die Beziehung zwischen dem zweiten Hauptsatze der mechanischen Wärmetheorie und der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung, respektive den Sätzen über das Wäremegleichgewicht. Sitzb d Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften mathematisch-naturwissen Cl LXXVI, Abt II:373-435.1877
    Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2019) The International System of Units (SI). 9th edition:117-216 ISBN 978-92-822-2272-0.2019
    Cohen ER, Cvitas T, Frey JG, Holmström B, Kuchitsu K, Marquardt R, Mills I, Pavese F, Quack M, Stohner J, Strauss HL, Takami M, Thor HL (2008) Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry. IUPAC Green Book 3rd Edition, 2nd Printing, IUPAC & RSC Publishing, Cambridge.2008
    Gallavotti G (2014) Nonequilibrium and irreversibility. Springer Heidelberg, New York, London.2014
    Gnaiger Erich et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1. doi:10.26124/bec:2020-0001.v1.2020
    Grosholz Emily R (2007) Representation and productive ambiguity in mathematics and the sciences. Oxford Univ Press 312 pp.2007
    Hofstadter DR (1979) Gödel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. A metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll. Harvester Press:499 pp.1979
    Ioannidis JP, Greenland S, Hlatky MA, Khoury MJ, Macleod MR, Moher D, Schulz KF, Tibshirani R (2014) Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis. Lancet 383:166-75.2014

    XXX-mass carols: BME and mitObesity

    1. Executive summary
    2. Healthy reference population
    3. Body mass index
    4. Height of humans
    5. Body mass
    6. Body mass excess
    7. Body fat excess
    8. BME cutoff points
    9. VO2max
    10. mitObesity - work in progress
    11. mitObesity drugs


    The X-mass carol just happened. 'Just happened' is used just at the time of release in the meaning of 'very recently'. It is used in the meaning of 'merely' to say, that it was not planned, that it happened, as the X-mass party was dragging on, as another Canon stepped in, and more levels of meanings popped up. It also means that it is open to what will happen next.

    Preprints for Gentle Science

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    » MitoFit Preprint Archives - The Open Access preprint server for mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics

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    Labels: MiParea: Instruments;methods, mt-Awareness 

    Preparation: Intact organism, Permeabilized cells, Homogenate, Isolated mitochondria, Enzyme, Intact cells 

    HRR: Theory 

    Amount of substance, Bit, Body mass, Cell respiration, Buglish, Canonical and practical, Canonical ensemble, Concentration, Count, Dimension, Entity, Extroduction, Flow, Flux, Format, IUPAC, International System of Units, Isolated mitochondria, Living cells, Mass, Measure, MitoPedia, Molar mass, Normalization of rate, Number, Object, Organism, Permeabilized cells, Publish, Sample, System, Unit, Volume